A history of lesbians in La Rioja, Spain

La Rioja is the smallest region in Spain by population, with only the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla having fewer residents; La Rioja has around 316,000 people compared to Ceuta and Mellila with around 84,000 each and the next smallest region of Cantabria with a population of around 584,000. The small population, the relatively recent creation of the region in Spanish history and the continuing rural nature of the community means much of the lesbian history is unknown. [1]

Logroño, the region’s biggest town and capital, has historically been a place on the crossroads, a town with a large number of visitors because of its position on the Camino de Santiago, a town on the borders of several kingdoms during the Middle Ages that only came into existence around the mid-900s because of the existence of Monasterio de San Millán. This late founding means a possible history tied into Roman, Visigoth and Moorish Spain is not there to draw a historical narrative from in a broad general sense.

At the same time, the region has not necessarily had the same level of scholarly interest as other parts of Spain on topics like the Inquisition, where a fair amount of historical evidence regarding lesbian life can be found in other regions of Spain like Valencia, Madrid, Barcelona, Sevilla, Valencia, Valladolid and Extremadura. In contrast, the stories of women in La Rioja during the Inquisition were mostly stories of women being prosecuted for alleged witchcraft.[2]

The Tribunal de la Inquisición that covered the area now known as La Rioja area was originally organized under the geographic area of the bishoprics of Osma and Calahorra, with their headquarters in Calahorra from 1498 until 1512, when the court was added to the one in Navarra. The Tribunal de la Inquisición de Logroño returned to Calahorra in 1521 and remained their until 1570 when it moved to Logroño. The jurisdiction of the court covered the entire kingdom of Navarre, the bishopric of Calahorra, the province of Guipúzcoa and the lordship of Vizcaya. The inquisition court was officially abolished by royal decree on 9 March 1820, with the Logroño court definitively abolished a little over a month later on 11 April 1820. The Inquisitors, realizing that they had fallen from favor and seeking to protect themselves and others, burned many records during their final days of existence, fearing the very tense local situation in the city may lead to actions taken against those connected to the court if their books fell into the hands of the public. Despite this, the Tribunal de la Inquisición continued until its final suppression in 1834. The burning of court records in 1820 makes it even harder to know if lesbians in the region faced persecution by the Inquisitorial court, further obscuring potential history in the region. [3]

Sodomy laws in the period during which the Inquisition took place applied to both men and women, but how much interest female sexuality had to Inquisitors in La Rioja and elsewhere in Spain continues to be debated as there is an overall absence of information about women’s sexuality and sexual activity in relation to the Inquisition. Despite the lack of material, the Inquisition was aware of female sodomy with Confessors’ manuals listing female homosexuality, male homosexuality and bestiality alongside each other as mortal dangers, and these manuals sometimes contained detailed information on these practices. This sporadic interest in female sexuality extended to other parts of Catholic life in Spain. During the Hapsburg period, parish priests would often ask women in Spain if they had sinned with other women and for details if those women said yes. This sort of behavior by the Church coupled with efforts to suppress female homosexuality add to the challenge of understanding lesbian life in La Rioja during this period. Whatever cultural life there was was well hidden or not of interest to largely male writers of that period, even if male on mal sexual activity was known through cases that sporadically made their way through the Inqusition in Logroño. For instance, there was the 1578 case of a French man named Gabriel de la Cueva. He was a resident of Logroño and accused of nefarious sin with Martín de Soria, a 12-year-old boy. Martín García was another man charged with heinous sin by the Inquisition in La Rioja, with his case taking place when he was a prisoner in Logroño in December 1572. A third case involves Rafael Arrieta, a native of Alfaro and a resident of Zaragoza, who was prosecuted by the Inquisition in Zaragoza in 1752 for the crime of sodomy. [4]

It was during the Inquisition period that Sappho would begin to become known to local readers and writers for the first time, though she was stripped of all references of female-on-female sexual desire. For example, seventeenth century poet Esteban Manuel de Villegas, who was born in Matute on 5 February 1589 and died in Nájera on 3 September 1669., was the first Spanish poet to use Sapphic meters in writing verse, a deviation from the current forms of verse in use at that time. Despite his familiarity with Sappho’s sexual desire. His only Sapphic inspiration appeared to be the style of verse, and not around female love.

The end of the Inquisition and events like the creation of the First Spanish Republic did little to change broader societal attitudes towards women who loved women; instead of anti-clerical attacks on them, lesbians were medically being stigmatized by the nineteenth century. One of the ideas about lesbian sexuality in La Rioja was formed based on the work of Austrian doctor Richard Kraff-Ebing, published in Psychopatia Sexualis in 1886. This work defined lesbian more widely in Spanish society because the text was so widely read. It said lesbianism was a degeneration that mostly afflicted prostitutes and aristocratic women. Kraff-Ebing said lesbianism was a disturbing symbol of modernity. The word lesbiana was already in use by this point inside the wider medical community, where it was synonymous with the word, tribadismo. The word was also being used culturally in Spain since 1870 and was interchangeable with sáfica and sadismo. In any case, none of these words were ones being used by lesbians to describe themselves and almost all the references to the word in this period originated in Madrid. Lesbians in this period, if using any word to describe themselves, used the sáfica because the connection to the well-known historical works of the Greek writer were viewed as giving them greater legitimacy.[5]

For the first time, a more open lesbian cultural life began to start to exist in La Rioja and Spain in the early 1900s as women entered the Spanish workforce in large numbers for the first time, giving them a certain amount of economic freedom that they had not enjoyed previously and allowing them some independence from male family members. These places of employment were often largely single sex, giving women an opportunity to socialize and spend large amounts of time with other women free of male supervision. In La Rioja, one of the major type of employers facilitating women’s participation were cigarette and cigar making factories. Women working at these factories often protected each other, and consequently created safe places for some lesbians women to be. [6]

While Madrid had its Círculo Sáfico composed of a number of well known, influential and more upper class lesbians, there was no equivalent in La Rioja during the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera and the Second Spanish Republic. Only one of the members of Círculo Sáfico came from the region and that was Lola Rodríguez Aragón, a soprano and partner of portrait painter Marisa Roesset Velasco. Rodríguez was born on 29 September 1910 in Logroño, the oldest of eight children.

The sense of economic freedom and the possibility to explore possibilities for women generally and lesbians specifically that started in the 1900s and culminated with the Second Spanish Republic would be relatively short lived. While lesbians had been briefly visible in European and Spanish society from the 1890s to the 1930s, the Spanish Civil War and World War II resulted in the erasure of lesbians and lesbian practices from the public sphere. The tiniest of glimpses into lesbian life in La Rioja again went mostly dark. [7]

By the 1960s, glimpses of lesbian life in La Rioja began to re-emerge, largely in part to researchers at the Universidad de La Rioja in the 2010s who sought out lesbians from the region to learn about their life experiences.

Compulsory heteronormativity existed for lesbians in La Rioja during the Franco period. Ideas learned then would stay with many of these women, even into the transition period and beyond with lesbians coming of age during that period later finding it hard to express their feelings about being a lesbian.[8]

During the 1960s, there were a number of statues in La Rioja dedicated to women, more than there are now. Most of them though were statues where women were depicted as mothers and leaders of their families, not as leaders or political figures or sportswomen.[9]

The seeds of lesbian militancy in the Franco period originated in the feminist and homosexual rights activist communities. [10] The Second Sex by Simone de Beauvoir and The Feminine Mystique by Betty Friedan were translated into Spanish in 1964, and began circulating underground within Spain and La Rioja.[11]

Lesbians in La Rioja who came of age in the 1960s and 1970s found it difficult to come out of the closet, even after Spain as a whole became more liberal and open to homosexuality in the Democratic Transition period and into the era where same-sex marriage became legal. [12]

Despite the small size of the region and the existence of the Francoist state, visible feminist activity took place during the early 1970s in La Rioja. This group would likely have included lesbians, though the research on this topic does not explicitly mention them. These feminists were found organizing in the textile, canning and footwear industries, and they were able to effect legislative change in this period. Asociación de Mujeres Juristas was founded in Logroño in 1971, and was one of the first feminist organizations founded in the city; they were founded as a clandestine organization and did not become publicly visible until after Franco’s death. Two years later, Asociación de Mujeres separadas legalmente became the second feminist organization founded in Logroño. Then in 1974, Movimiento Democrático de la Mujer-Movimiento de Liberación de la Mujer was founded. The fourth major feminist organization in this period to be founded was Seminario Colectivo Feminista, founded in 1975. The last on the scene was Asociación Feminista de La Rioja, founded in March 1979. They did not become visible in broader La Rioja society until after Franco’s death. None of these groups were explicitly about lesbians, but their feminist nature and lack of connection for most lesbian women to the nascent Spanish homosexual rights movement means that lesbians in La Rioja likely would have been attracted to these organizations based on historical patterns. The experiences of these feminist groups prepared them for the death of Franco in November 1975, enabling them to integrate into left-wing politics in the immediate transition period. Despite their successes though, not all left-wing groups wanted these women resulting in some of these transition era feminists feeling marginalized inside these groups. It was these feelings of marginalization that often drove women to organize independently as feminist groups in La Rioja during the late 1970s. [13]

At the time of Franco’s death, Logroño had a population of 100,169, the first time the city’s population reached over 100,000. Despite this, the region was still primarily rural with the population of the then Provincia de Logroño having 242,473 people. Most of the people moving to Logroño were part of a wider rural exodus to big cities.[14]

The start of the Democratic Transition in late 1975 did not bring immediate changes to the lives of lesbians in La Rioja. Lesbians had been largely invisible during the Franco period and that status quo largely remained, with few lesbians living openly as lesbians, even late into the Mariano Rajoy period that ended in 2018. This was because many lesbians from the region had also internalized the conservative nature of the region, which resulted in more of them remaining closeted even as broader Spanish society began to open up more. This mentality continued into the next generation and resulted in a situation where lesbians were more than oppressed, but that remained hidden because of the repressive nature of the region.[15]

Like the late Franco period, the more activist lesbian experience in La Rioja during the transition has to mostly be viewed through the history of the La Rioja feminist movement.  This idea is supported by scholars from the region who have investigated lesbian life in later periods, and were provided with experiences of older lesbians during this period.

The feminist community in La Rioja was networked to a certain degree into the national feminist movement.  This was in part because of their location relative to other provinces, a situation that was not the same in other regions like Extremadura, Ceuta, Melilla and the Canary Islands where some feminist movements were much more insular. The Primeras Jornadas Nacionales por la Liberación de la Mujer took place between 6 and 8 December 1975 in Madrid at Colegio Montpellier, with around 500 women participating. The event was constituted in 1974 by the Secretariado de Organizaciones No Gubernamentales, who held meetings and coordinated activities in different parts of Spain including in Barcelona, ​​Valencia, Santander, Malaga, Alicante and Valladolid. Ahead of the December 1975 event, the held a smaller one in Madrid, attended by 80 women from cities and regions that included Albacete, Alicante, Barcelona, ​​Galicia, Logroño, Madrid, Málaga, Oviedo, Santander, Seville, Valencia and Valladolid. These meetings would give rise to the feminist movement in the post-Franco period and be a launching point from which some early lesbian activists would emerge; none of the names of these lesbians later written in history books came from La Rioja.[16]

One of the most important feminist organizations to emerge in the transition period was Asociación Feminista de La Rioja (AFR). The group, founded in Logroñp in early 1979 in either February or March, was linked to left-wing political parts and Colegio Universitario de Logroño (CULO). The group had a membership of around ninety women who came from across the political divide, despite their left-wing origins, and included left-wing militants, women from Christian groups and women from neighborhood associations. It is likely the group attracted lesbian members, even if those members were heavily closeted. Lesbianism as a topic, based on the experiences of lesbians elsewhere, likely would rarely have come up in meetings or in discussions among other members. The general political goals of feminist groups during the transition would have been in support of legal equality, making the Spanish Constitution feminist, repeal of certain laws, and making divorce, contraceptives and abortion legal. [17]

It was at CULO that AFR and Asociación de Amigos de La Rioja would celebrate the Primeras Jornadas de la Mujer Riojana in February 1979. One of the group’s first demands was that women manage Centros de Información Sexual for other women. This interest in female sexuality led AFR and Empar Pineda to hosting the Primeras Jornadas Feministas sobre la sexualidad on 5 May 1981. Topics covered at the conference included free sexuality, contraception, homosexuality, lesbianism, and the impact rape and sexual aggression of the practice’s female victims. The group’s other major focus was on abortion rights, especially as they were disappointed in PSOE’s position not being very progressive. They used a number of slogans in support of abortion rights including, “Sexuality is not motherhood”, “If the Pope got pregnant, abortion would be sacred”.[18]

Despite their frequent hesitation to talk about lesbianism and even more rarely so using pictures, it was from the feminist movement and AFR that the first celebration of Pride would take place in La Rioja. Asociación Feminista Riojana held a conference on 28 June 1981 to raise awareness of homosexual rights and lesbians in honor of Orgullo, then called Día Internacional Para la Liberación de Homosexuales y Lesbianas. This appears to have been a one-off event that was not repeated in subsequent years. The next documented Orgullo event to happen in La Rioja was also organized by AFR in June 1987 with a talk titled, “Lesbianas ¿por qué no?” at Sala de Cultura Gonzalo de Berceo. The 25 June 1987 talk featured a speaker from the Colectivo de Lesbianas Feminists de Madrid. The poster for the event featured two naked women embracing.[19]

The end of the transition and the start of the 1980s saw an increase in small increase visible lesbian activism in La Rioja, separate from the broader feminist community in the region for the first time.  This did not necessarily translate into improvements in the everyday lives of lesbians in La Rioja during this period.   For some lesbians who came of age in the 1980s and 1990s, they did not even understand what a lesbian was because the topic was discussed so infrequently.[20]

Despite that lack of knowledge, lesbian activism began. The Colectivo de Feministas Lesbianas was expanding across Spain between 1980 to 1985 after having its first branch founded in Madrid in 1980. A short-lived branch called Colectivo de Feministas Lesbianas de La Rioja was founded in Logroño in 1985, but its impact appears to have been marginal and it is not mentioned much except in broader histories of Spanish lesbianism as having existed.  They did produce a magazine called Bailas. Grupo de Lesbianas de La Rioja attended the 1987 Madrid hosted Jornadas de Lesbianas held from 3 to 5 June where they presented a session called Lesbiana provinciana busca novia.  It was from the feminist lesbian movement that proto-queer theory would first emerge on the scene in Spain, injected into the broader feminist community by these lesbian activists who were seeking to deconstruct gender. [21]

Male violence was also an issue in the region in the 1980s that feminists and others were keen to draw attention to. The Asociaion Feminista de La Rioja convened a manifestacion against rape against women on 1 December 1985 at Glorieta del Doctor Zubía. They were supposed by CRIPAZ, ERA-AT, M.C.R., M.O.C., J.O.C., C.I.O., Asociación Gitano, A.P.I.R., Grupo de Homosexuales y Lesbianas, ACESUR and EXODO. Marchers urged women to denounce their attackers and to not be silent in the face of such abuse.[22]

Activism, either from feminists or lesbians, did not end homophobia in the region in the 1980s. Iberpop was held in Logroño in 1984. One of the posters promoting the event featured an opposite-sex couple kissing. The woman had short hair and was not wearing earrings. The president of the Tribunal Tutelar de Menores filed a complaint, saying the poster promoted homosexuality. Ultimately, the court refused to process the complaint but the fact that a complaint had been filed attracted national attention. The complaint highlighted the homophobic atmosphere in the city at the time.[23]

The 1990s brough some broader cultural changes and problems to the region.  The Universidad de La Rioja was founded on 4 May 1992 as a result of the Congreso de Diputados in Madrid passing a law to establish the university, with the new university absorbing Colegio Universitario y las escuelas de Magisterio, Politécnica o Empresariales run by the Universidad de Zaragoza.  At the same time, starting in the 1980s and accelerating into the 1990s, the region dealt with a serios of forty terrorist attacks, including ones in Calahorra in 1983 and 2008; Casalarreina in 1991, Arnedo in 1995 and Logroño in 2001.

The 1990s were another period of limited visibility and activism in the region.  Most lesbian feminist organizations in Spain continued to cling to their existence, including the La Rioja lesbian feminist collective Bailas about whom little is known in this period.  In the bordering Basque Country, all lesbian feminist groups disappeared in this period, leaving Bailas relatively isolated regionally as Basque lesbians appeared to be somewhat influential among La Riojan lesbian feminists. Despite the situation in both La Rioja and the Basque Country, lesbian feminists from both regions attended the 1997 Jornadas de Lesbianas Feministas that took place in Bilbao.  Beyond these regions, lesbian feminists also came from Córdoba, Oviedo, Gijón, Torrelavega, Salamanca, Santiago de Compostela, Pamplona, Madrid, Murcia, Valencia and Barcelona to participate.

Lesbian visibility was very low.  The most frequent mentions of lesbians in the 1990s were in newspapers and connected to prostitution. By the mid-1990s, the Logroño newspaper La Rioja had advertisements for discrete French and Greek speaking lesbian prostitutes who also offered golden showers. Advertisements for lesbian prostitutes continued in the into the paper until at the mid-2010s. In later advertisements starting in the mid-2000s, lesbians prostitution services were offered alongside transvestite prostitution services.

Homosexual visibility more broadly was also quite limited, and there were continuing issues with homophobia that were compounded by the political situation in the region. The first out gay couple moved to Arnedillo in 1990.[24]

Partido Popular came to power regionally in 1995 following a five-year period of PSOE regional leadership, and Partido Popular’s Pedro Sanz Alonso would remain the region’s president until 3 July 2015 when he was replaced by Partido Popular’s José Ignacio Ceniceros González who continued Partido Popular’s over twenty-year control of the region until 29 August 2019 when he was replaced by PSOE’s Concepción Andreu Rodríguez. Pedro Sanz Alonso was openly homophobic, and this impacted his policies towards same-sex attracted people during his time in government. [25]

The remaining area where homosexuals, mostly men, continued to have visibility and some activism in La Rioja during the 1990s was in relations to the AIDS crisis. 1991 was the worst year for AIDS in La Rioja, with 177 new cases detected.[26]

For many people with AIDS in the late 1980s and early 1990s in La Rioja, one of the primary roles of mental healthcare professionals was to prepare people to die, since most people who contracted AIDS in that period died as a result of AIDS and other complications like poor health and drug addiction.[27]

The 2000s would bring increased visibility, awareness and organization for lesbians and the LGTB community in La Rioja more broadly.  Much of this owed itself to events taking place in and around the battle for marriage equality that was taking place nationally.  It led to a few local efforts to support diversity and inclusion in smaller towns in the region. At the same time, data became available for the first time that allowed the size of the homosexual population in various parts of Spain to be measured. This data showed that the number of lesbians and gays living in La Rioja represented a tiny fraction of the same-sex population in Spain, 1% of the national total and less than that when broken down by sex.

Starting in the early 2000s, Arnedillo began working towards 100% integration of gays and lesbians into their community.  This was in part the result of an openly gay couple having moved to the town in 1990. [28]

It was difficult for lesbians and gay politicians in La Rioja and across Spain to come out of the closet in the mid-2000s because they were afraid of reprisals and they were afraid they would lose votes, especially if they were members of Partido Popular. [29] Despite this, there was a push for LGTB rights in the region, which from 2004 to 2011, with PSOE played a leading role. [30] In 2008, Área de Libertad de Expresión Afectivo-Sexual de Izquierda Unida (IU) made a call for organizations to fight against homophobia and transphobia.  They also called for people to take to the streets for lesbian visibility as part of 2008 Orgullo events. Their claims about lesbians and their needs also included rights around transsexuality and sex re-assignment in public health, along with a reformulation of the National Plan on AIDS. [31] In 2010, PSOE presented a bill to the regional parliament to allow a sex change to be registered with Social Security. [32] The first visible La Rioja lesbian political leader did not emerge until 2015. [33]

In early February 2008, GYLDA announced they were starting a campaign to encourage people to vote for progressive political parties in the upcoming elections. They believed doing so would result in the continued advancement of their agenda, which had made significant strides in recent years, and help building a society that was moving “towards social progress, social plurality, respect for family diversity and the eradication of any conduct of discrimination based on sex, race, social or cultural class, religion or sexual orientation.”[34] The first visible La Rioja lesbian political leader did not emerge until 2015. [35] Podemos La Rioja mentioned Lesbian Visibility Day on their Twitter account on 26 April 2016, using the hashtag #DiaVisibilidadLesbica.

The newspaper La Rioja, around in a digital format since 1997, only mentioned lesbians for the first time in March 2006. Between them and June 2018, there would be 1,086 uses of the word lesbian, many in reference to associations with lesbian in the name. [36]

In the late 2000s, homophobia was a major issue in La Rioja, with La Rioja society for the most part tolerating it, even inside state institutions like schools.[37] Even parents that said they would be okay if they had a lesbian daughter or gay son would often still be disappointed or upset when their child came out of the closet. [38] Despite these issues, Logroño was a regional hub for the LGB community. Gays and lesbians in Mirando de Ebro often turned to Gehitu in San Sebastián and GYLDA from Logroño for support in the late 2000s and early 2010s. [39] When gays and lesbians in Arnedo wanted to get away and get more social opportunities in 2009, they often headed to Calahorra or Logroño. For young gays and lesbians without a car, this made life very difficult as there were no gay bars or other places where they could be out without fear.

The Ayuntamiento de Logroño budgeted €18225 in 2009 for programming for young people dealing with discrimination. From this funding effort, the Centro Arco Iris would be created. Its staff eventually included psychologist Miguel Ferreras. Over time, the quality of the programming offered by the center would improve greatly. [40]

In the 2010s, many lesbian women in the region preferred to keep their sexual orientation private. This desire has meant that lesbian women in the region have been largely invisible. These lesbians did not necessarily feel repressed but hidden because of an internalized narrative that they should be hidden.[41] Lesbians who were closeted in the 2010s were often that out of a fear of rejection from family members, from friends and from broader social opportunities including religious and educational ones. These lesbians had often internalized lesbophobia, resulting in guilt and shame. [42]

The majority of lesbians in La Rioja in the 2010s claimed to be feminists, though to varying degrees. Their relationship with the movement though has issues because they often did not believe the feminist movement prioritized their needs. One of the main benefits many saw of feminism was that it challenged gender norms of masculine and feminine, which in turn leads to questions about heterosexuality which is an issue centric to lesbian sexuality. [43]

Marea Arcoíris, Nenazas, Mujeres enRE_BELDÍA and GYLDA were important organizations for lesbians in La Rioja in the 2010s. They were places where lesbians could become visible in their desire to engage in sociopolitical activism to meet their own needs to be revindicated in La Rioja society. Many of those who did so were already involved in other sociopolitical movements or had family members who were involved in them, from whom those lesbians drew encouragement to become more politically engaged in advocating for their own rights and visibility.[44]

Some lesbians in the 2010s had been involved in the LGTBI+ community in the past but had left activism for a variety of reasons including personal conflicts, focusing on other political issues, exhaustion, and feeling upset that the only way they could achieve their political goals was in partnership with men who tended to dominate those organizations. [45]

La Rioja was the only region in Spain without an asesinato machista[46] in the 2010s. This was despite the fact that women in the region were still often victims of violencia machista,[47] with the highest rates in Spain of 2.4 female victims for every 1,000 residents. Murcia and Valencia, with and 8 and 65 asesinatos machistas respectively, had the next highest rate of violencia machista at 2.2 female victims per 1,000 residents. This contrasted to the Basque Country which had a rate of 0.8 female victims per 1,000 residents but 18 murders and Catalonia with a rate of one female victim per 1,000 residents but 80 sexist murders.[48]

In the early and mid-2010s, there were no lesbian meeting places and organizations in La Rioja. This hindered the ability of lesbians to be visible and in allowing lesbians to come together and get emotional support from each other. There were also few lesbian role models from the region.[49] There did not appear to be much of a difference in lifestyle and comparative quality of life for lesbians living in Logroño versus living in rural parts of the region. The major advantage to being in Logroño, or in other large cities before moving to the region, was it gave access to more resources when lesbians first ventured out of the closet.[50]

While Logroño looked like a city in the early 2010s, it functioned like a town with everyone knowing everyone else. At the same time, it was also surrounded by other small towns. With Partido Popular in control of the region, many homosexuals from Logroño emigrated to other parts of Spain that were more tolerant of homosexuals.  They left for regions like Madrid, Catalonia, and the Balearic and Canary Islands.[51] According to GYLDA President Francisco Pérez Diego in 2012, it was very difficult for LGTB people to come out of the closet at that time in part because the area was very conservative had had a Partido Popular government for 20 years. Many members of the LGTB community chose to migrate to other parts of Spain so they could be out of the closet. Pérez Diego never discussed the specific plight of lesbians in La Rioja.

Parents of lesbian and gay children who were out of the closet and remained in La Rioja sometimes faced their own challenges as their friends might stop talking to them or try to convince them that it would be better if they could talk their children into marrying a person of the opposite sex or have a child. [52]

Asociación de Madres y Padres de Lesbianas, Gays, Transexuales y Bisexuales (AMPGYL)-Rioja was active in by 2010. [53]  The group founded by three mothers who viewed themselves as looking after the fifty members of GYLDA. [54]  The group met at the house of Marisa Fernández in the barrio of Yagüe during that period. The other members of the group included Violeta Puerta and Roberto Carreras. The group believed it was important for parents to come out of the closet as having gay and lesbian children to increase acceptance for gays and lesbians in La Rioja. Questions members of the group often got from others in their community included if their child was happy if homosexuality was a disease, if it is difficult for their child to walk hand-in-hand in Logroño and is it hard for the parents considering they themselves are heterosexual.[55]Members also included Ester Nolla i Miró. [56] AMPGYL hosted the tenth edition of Jornadas Anuales de AMPGYL in San Sebastián from 18 to 20 February 2011. Representatives from AMPGYL-Rioja were in attendance, with a delegation size of four.[57]

Some gynecologists in the region discriminated against lesbians or did not know how to provide them with reproductive health care in the early 2010s.[58] During the early stages of education in the early 2010s, in Early Childhood and Primary Education ages 3 to 12, female homosexuality was not mentioned. It also was not addressed in schools for students aged 12 to 16, when girls begin to discover their sexuality. [59]

The GYLDA organized I Jornadas de Educación en Diversidad Afectivo-Sexual were held at the Universidad de La Rioja in March 2010. Titles for sessions included “The social construction of sexuality from homoeroticism to queer theory”, “Heteronormativity in the educational system”, “Education in Diversity in the family environment”, “The challenges and proposals to educate in affective-sexual diversity in the classroom” and, “the role of the figure of the Defensor del Pueblo”. None were lesbian specific, and GYLDA was very gay male dominated at that time.[60] Esther Nolla and Catalina Pastor, from Asociación de Madres y Padres de Gays y Lesbianas de Barcelona, organized the conference ‘Education in diversity in the family environment’ which took place during the same weekend and was part of the same conference cycle.[61]

Día contra la homofobia, la transfobia y la bifobia events were organized in 2012 by GYLDA, with 51 La Rioja educational centers participating. The motto for that year’s events was, “A la escuela, sin armarios”.[62] Orgullo 2012 Logroño had more than sixty people coming from different parts of Spain and Europe to attend, including Poland, Denmark, France, Belgium, Palencia, Zaragoza, Pamplona, ​​the Basque Country, Soria, Madrid and La Rioja.[63] La Rioja was formally left without an LGTB voice in August 2012 after GYLDA formally dissolved in July 2012 after a vote by their board.[64]

There were only two hate crimes reported to the Ministerio del Interior, Secretaría de Estado de Seguridad in the whole of La Rioja in 2013. Neither were for discrimination based on sexual orientation of sexual identity. One was for racism, and the other for disability.[65]

Starting in the 2013, women from Cervera del Río Alhama began efforts to participate in the male only La Gaita dance that takes place on the first day of the Santa Ana festival on 24, 25 and 26 July. The women dressed the same way as the men, have distributed purple ribbons to let others know of their struggle to participate, and have tried to respectfully dance in the final section when children and veterans are asked to join in. But when they do, the music has often stopped as the men did not want them to participate, a situation that continued to exist in 2018. The men have tried to insist that efforts by these women fighting for women’s rights were really because they were lesbians, that the women are “marimachos”[66] and that they should “go eat each other’s penises”.[67] The women have insisted that sexual orientation has nothing to do with their demand for women’s rights.[68]

In the mid-2010s, lesbophobia appears to not be an active problem in schools in La Rioja with known cases of aggression and discrimination happening. The causes for that are hard to know exactly, but the authors of a 2018 study attributing the lack of lesbophobia to the invisibility faced by lesbians.[69] At the same time, there was a general lack of sex education in La Rioja. Most of what children learned was through television and online videos. This outside of school entertainment content on television and on the Internet would often define how children viewed sexuality. And despite the access to this content that could teach ten-year-old girls what the missionary position was, the same girls would not understand the process of a sperm and egg coming together.[70]

Lesbian voices faced difficulties being heard in the mid-2010s. Inside the LGTB community and when facing the general public, male voices tended to dominate.[71] It continued to be difficult for lesbians to come out of the closet in rural areas because of an entrenched machoism made it feel risky for some women.[72]  It was often not much easier in bigger towns and cities. In the mid- and late 2010s, lesbians who were publicly visible in Logroño by holding hands when out with their partners would often get dirty looks from people.[73] Marina Blanco was kissing her girlfriend goodbye on the street in Logroño during this period when an older woman approached them and told them to stop putting on a show and stop kissing, saying they had no shame. [74]

The population of women in La Rioja was 158,811 in 2014.[75] There were no hate crimes based on discrimination based on sexual orientation of sexual identity reported to the Ministerio del Interior, Secretaría de Estado de Seguridad in the whole of La Rioja in 2014, 2015 or 2016.[76]

There were no lesbian specific bars or cafes in La Rioja in 2014. [77] In 2014, lesbians in La Rioja often hid their sexual orientation from their employers out of fear that they might face employment consequences if that information was widely known.[78] In September 2015, there were five lesbians from La Rioja with listings on the dating site Pink Cupid. Four were from Logroño, aged 24 32, 42 and 45. One was from Calahorra, aged 21.

GYLDA played a leading role in lesbian activism until 2014, when Marea Arcoíris and other LGTB groups were founded in the region.[79]

 Nenazas is a transfeminist youth collective that has been around since November 2015. They are not lesbian, but trans. Some of their members identify as lesbians, and they have played an important role in some parts of La Rioja lesbian life in the sense that they are one of the few LGTB type organizations in the region. While the organizations believes transwomen are women, they also advocate on issues that are often specific to the interests of women, including sexual assault against women and girls, and the sexualization of young girls in society.[80]

Mujeres en Rebeldía and Nenazas have never had the visibility of GYLDA or Marea Arcoíris in the press and with the general public despite being all women’s groups. Despite that, as activists, they remained fully committed in the late 2010s to their goals.[81]

Two members of Marea Arco Iris filed a complaint at the Jefatura Superior de la Policía Nacional against Mujeres en Rebeldía in September 2016, alleging several women uttered homophobic slurs at the during the Fiestas de la Vendimia at the Punto Feminista that took place in Plaza Amós Salvador. The group rejected the complaint, saying the slurs were actually uttered by members of the local police who were in the same space at the time. Mujeres en Rebeldía said it was a structural problem of the police and local town hall in refusing to assess structural and systemic problems of heteropatriarchy inside their organizations.

The VI Jornadas sobre Diversidad Afectivo-Sexual y de Género ‘Mujeres que aman a mujeres’ were held on 24 March 2015 at the Sala de Grados del Edificio Quintiliano de la Universidad de La Rioja. It was dedicated to women who love women, and was in its sixth edition. The first session was a round table discussion titled “Evolution and incorporation of lesbian women in the patriarchal society”. The second session was a screening of the 2015 Spanish and French lesbian documentary Las ventanas abiertas, followed by a discussion led by director Michèle Massé and film subject Boti G. Rodrigo. The conference was organized by Grupo ‘Igualdad y Género’ , FELGTBm GYLDA and Aldarte. An exhibition was also organized by the Bilbao based group Aldarte titled “In transit: between secrecy and visibility 1977-2007” that lasted from 19 to 26 March 2015 at Edificio Quintiliano.[82]

The Grupo Igualdad y Género at the Universidad de La Rioja published a first of its kind study on lesbian women in the region in January 2016. The work was carried out by Maria Ángeles Goicochea, Olaya Fernández, María José Clavo and Remedios Álvarez.[83]

The regional Parliament approved a declaration in 2016 that expressed “its firm rejection of any type of discrimination based on sexual orientation and identity”. It also said the Parliament “assumes the homosexual and transsexual fact as part of its political work in defense of public rights and freedoms, while anti-discriminatory policies are built on it that advance substantially on the path of real and effective equality that our community proclaims.” [84]

The population of women in La Rioja was 157,468 in 2017.[85] It was 159,917 in 2018.[86] From 2013 to 2017, the number of restraining orders or precautionary measures issued in the region increased by 33.9%, going from 168 restraining order or precautionary measures in 2013 to 225 in 2017. The 2017 rate in the region was unchanged from 2016.[87]

Because La Rioja was still largely organized as a rural area in the 2010s, the area tended to be more conservative which made it difficult for many lesbians to come out of the closet. The older the lesbians were at this time, the more challenging it was for them to come out of the closet.[88]

Feminists in La Rioja in the late 2010s faced discrimination from very conservative members of La Rioja who viewed their activities as a result of them being unable to get a boyfriend and turning to women instead. Mujeres en rebeldía gathered on 8 March 2019 at the Concatedral Santa María la Redonda for the International Women’s Labor Day protest. They had a banner they put across the facade of the building that read, “Os beberéis la sangre de nuestros abortos” which means “You will drink the blood of our abortions.” It was later removed at the same time that the manifestation called by UGT, CCOO, USO and STE-Rioja started at the plaza del Mercado.

Around a 75% of lesbians in the late 2010s in La Rioja, the Basque Country, Navarra, Aragon, Madrid and Catalonia used the word lesbiana to refer to themselves. Bollera was much less used, with 2.4% using it in a vindictive since and 4.87% using it in a colloquial sense. A very few used the word gay interchangeably with the word lesbian to refer to themselves. Those who used the word gay did so because the word was used interchangeably with lesbians in the broader international LGBT community. Also a select few used the word pansexual to refer to themselves, and those that did were aware of the controversial nature of the word in the Spanish LGTB community especially as it related to bisexuals. [89]

In the 2010s, some lesbians in their 50s and 60s in more rural areas of Spain used the term pareja instead of novia when referring to the woman they were in a relationship with. This was a generational gap in use of language, as some of these older women were using the word pareja in order to be more closeted, even when they were in situations when it was not needed as they were around other lesbians. [90]

Around a 88% of lesbians in the late 2010s in La Rioja, the Basque Country, Navarra, Aragon, Madrid and Catalonia considered themselves feminists. Their feminism covered a number of varieties and had different levels of intensities. Of this 87.8%, 25% explicitly viewed themselves as not being radical feminists and 8.3% viewed themselves as being transfeminists. Younger lesbians were much more likely to eschew all labels around how they described themselves as feminists. [91]

Around a quarter of lesbians in the late 2010s in La Rioja, the Basque Country, Navarra, Aragon, Madrid and Catalonia had previously had heterosexual relationships. For some of these lesbians, these experiences with men mean they view their attraction to others as based on the individual and not their sex or gender, even if they now are in exclusively female-female relationships. [92]

In the late 2010s, lesbian healthcare left much to be desired.[93] In the late 2010s, there were a few same-sex attracted women in La Rioja that transitioned and identified as transmen.[94]

Castilla-La Mancha, La Rioja, Ceuta and Melilla, Cantabria, Asturias and Castilla y León lacked comprehensive legislation protesting LGTB identities as of 2017.[95] Marea Arcoíris La Rioja used the government of La Rioja to include in its 2017 budget €40000 for a campaign to campaign to raise awareness, prevent and fight against LGTBIphobia. Between 2017 and 2019, 2% of the cultural programs offered by the regional government were focused on the LGTB collective. [96]

Between 60 and 80% of LGTB hate crimes went unreported nationally in 2017. According to FELGTB, one LGTB hate crime took place in La Rioja that year. That year, nationally, 73% of hate crimes based on sexual orientation were against men, 21% against lesbians and 2% against bisexuals.[97] There were five hate crimes reported to the Ministerio del Interior, Secretaría de Estado de Seguridad in the whole of La Rioja in 2017. This represented 1.6 hate crimes per 100,000 people. One hate crime was based on the practice of religion, one based on racism, and three were based on ideology. There were no hate crimes based on discrimination based on sexual orientation of sexual identity.[98] In 2017, observatorio Redes Contra Odio reported one case of an LGTB hate crime in La Rioja.[99]

La Rioja ranked second in 2018 nationally based on Ministerio del Interior data for the number of hate crimes per 100,000 people at 7.3. They were behind Catalonia at 7.9 and ahead of Melilla at 6.9 and the Basque Country at 5.5. On a by province level, La Rioja ranked fourth with 7.3 hate crimes per 100,000 people, behind Girona at 10.9, Tarragona at 10.6, Lleida at 7.4, and ahead of Barcelona at 7.1, Melilla at 6.9, Bizkaia at 6.7, Burgos at 5.9, Gipuzkoa at 4.6 and Ávila at 4.4. There were twenty-three hate crimes reported to the Ministerio del Interior, Secretaría de Estado de Seguridad in the whole of La Rioja in 2018. This represented 7.3 hate crimes per 100,000 people. One was based on sexual orientation or gender identity, three based on racism or xenophobia, nine based on ideology, one based on sex, and nine based on age.[100]

In March 2018, PSOE de Calahorra asked Fiscalía y al Delegado del Gobierno en La Rioja Alberto Bretón for his office to investigate homophobic leafletting at Colegio La Milagrosa by an ultra group. The leaflets were signed by AES LA RIOJA, Alternativa Española Social Cristiana. They equated homosexuality with pedophilia. PSOE demanded that specific measures be taken to prevent a repeat of this occurring in the future.[101]

The president of Marea Arcoíris was out with her girlfriend, holding hands, in March 2018 on Gran Vía in Logroño when a man approached the couple, and rebuked and insulted them. [102] In early April 2018, two women were assaulted in Logroño because of their sexual orientation near Plaza del Mercado and Calle de Herrerías. A young man spat on them, yelled verbal abuse at them and pushed them. The phrases yelled at them included, “look at these shitty dykes” and “let’s put on [the song] The Face to the Sun so they can learn”.[103] When he finally left them, he did so in a car that loudly played the Francoist song, “Cara al Sol.” It was the sixth reported homophobic incident that year in Logroño and the second against lesbians. The women reported the incident to the Policia Nacional. [104]

Marea Arcoíris requested that the Government of La Rioja include the LGTBI+ curriculum in September 2018 in order to combat LGTBIphobia that was occurring in school classrooms.

Los Niños son Intocables held a protest at the Plaza del Ayuntamiento de Logroño on 29 December 2018 to condemn the Gobierno de La Rioja for not giving parents a choice for their students to receive sexual education talks and workshops in school that covered topics like safe sex and sexual orientation.

There were six hate crimes reported to the Ministerio del Interior, Secretaría de Estado de Seguridad in the whole of La Rioja in 2019. This represented 1.9 hate crimes per 100,000 people. Two were based on racism or xenophobia, two were based on ideology, one was anti-gitano and one was an administrative infraction not covered by other categories. There were none based on sexual orientation or gender identity. Four of these were criminal infractions, two each for ideology and racism of which one of the ideology ones led to detention.[105] FELGTB and GYLDA reported that in 2019 that there were 12 incidents of LGTB hate crimes in the region that year.

In April 2019, GYLDA called for citizens of La Rioja to protest Hazte Oír’s bus visit to Logroño, claiming the bus visiting was an incitement and provocation against the LGTBI+ community in the city.[106]

On 2 February 2019, Los Niños son Intocables held a demonstration at the offices of the Gobierno de la Rioja to protest the inclusion of sexual education of children in schools without parental consent, where topics of sexual education included information on sexual orientation, gender identity and safe sex practices. They encouraged parents of Muslim children to attend their protest. The protest took place in Plaza del Ayuntamiento de Logroño.

Logroño born Madrid Vox Congreso de Diputados member Alicia Rubio attended a Vox event in Madrid in November 2019. Phrases attributed to her at the event by nuevecuatrouno included, “Feminism no longer defends women, only lesbians,” “Feminism has lost its way since it began to hate men,” and “Current feminism hates men. It no longer seeks for women to be like men, but to eliminate them.”[107]

El Español published a list of the most powerful homosexuals by region in 2017. The three most powerful homosexuals identified from La Rioja were all males, Javier Cámara, Francisco Pérez Diego and Álvaro Villar Calvo.[108]

Marea Arcoíris Rioja and Mujeres en RE_BELDIA mentioned Lesbian Visibility Day on their Twitter account on 26 April 2017, using the hashtag #DiaVisibilidadLesbica. Cambia Logroño mentioned Lesbian Visibility Day on their Twitter account on 26 April 2018, using the hashtag #DiaVisibilidadLesbica.

Cambia Logroño celebrated Lesbian Visibility Day in 2018.[109] On 25 April 2018 and in honor of Lesbian Visibility Day, Cambia Logroño councilor Marina Blanco proposed to the town hall “to promote policies for gender equality and against sexist violence that make visible and address the reality of lesbian women and their specific problems.” She was accompanied by Marea Arcoíris La Rioja President Deborah Pimentel. Her proposal included adding a “perspective of sexual diversity and gender identity in municipal youth and elderly policies” despite gender identity not being related to sexual orientation. Her proposal also said it was of vital importance that the Consejería de Educación and the Ministerio de Educación “approve and develop, in collaboration with school councils, protocols to prevent and eradicate cases of bullying suffered by lesbian girls and adolescents because of their sexual orientation.” Further, her proposal called for “guarantee lesbian women quality health care, free of prejudice and adapted to their needs and demands”. It also asked that legislation be approved that would make “discrimination and violence based on sexual orientation as a hate crime.” [110]

26 April 2019 was the first ever march for lesbian visibility in the region’s history.[111]

Comité Regional El PSOE La Rioja released a statement on 26 April 2018 in honor of Día de la Visibilidad Lésbica saying they “denounce the discrimination to which thousands of women around the world are subjected”. They also demanded essential public policies and progress in the development of legislation that guarantee the eradication of lesbophobia and any form of inequality to which women are subjected by reason of being so and the double discrimination faced by lesbian and bisexual women”. Despite the violence against lesbians that had been reported in March and April that year, PSOE encouraged rural lesbian and bisexual women to come out of the closet, especially because visibility is important and these women face greater discrimination in rural areas. They went on to say, “intolerable cases of discrimination continue to occur, both in the institutional sphere and on the street, where it is common for attacks against lesbian women to continue to occur, as revealed by the data from the different observatories against LGTBphobia who are beginning to denounce this situation and how they have recently occurred in our Community”.[112]

Marina Blanco, at the age of 21, became a councillor for Cambia Logroño in the Logroño townhall in November 2017 replacing Paz Manso de Zúñiga who resigned. Blanco was originally number eight on the party’s list, but the candidates ahead of her to replace Manso de Súñiga resigned and the group decided to name Marina Blanca. When she was sworn in in December 2017, she promised to work for “For social justice, equality and sustainability”. [113]

In 2017, the Ayuntamiento de Logroño and GYLDA had a ceremony where the rainbow flag was presented and the Ayuntamiento announced its support, along with declaring the municipal government as a place for diversity. Of the nine people photographed with the flag, only three were women of which one was PSOE councilor Beatriz Arraiz Nalda who was in the center while the other two women appeared in the far left of the image. [114]

The Universidad de La Rijoa, along with Unidad de Igualdad de Género y el Grupo de Investigación ‘Igualdad y Género’, GYLDA and FELGTB, organized the March 2018 Jornadas sobre Diversidad Afectivo-Sexual y de Género ‘Lxs Otrxs’. It was the ninth edition of the event, with that year’s focus on historical leaders in the LGTBI+ movement, with a goal of writing a better history of the homosexual rights movement in Spain and the history of the broader LGTBI+ movement in Spain. There was nothing on the program specific to lesbians.[115] The La Unidad de Igualdad at the Universidad de La Rioja were a nominee for the 2018 Premios Pluma y Látigo given by FELGTB for their work on lesbians in La Rioja.[116]

The X Jornadas sobre Diversidad Afectivo-Sexual y de Género abordan took place at the Universidad de La Rioja from 25 to 27 March 2019. The theme was intersexuality and the intersex condition. Unlike other editions, lesbians were not referenced or discussed.[117]

There was hope after the 2019 regional elections that the situation for LGTB people would improve in the regional government. [118] On 29 August 2019 PSOE’s Concepción Andreu Rodríguez became the new president of La Rioja. She was the first woman to be the President of La Rioja. She was the fourth PSOE president of the region since the Democratic Transition, preceded by Antonio Rodríguez Basulto in 1983, José María de Miguel Gil from 1983 to 1987 and José Ignacio Pérez Sáenz from 1990 to 1995.

Balneario TermaEuropa Arnedillo, a hotel in Arnedo, won the UGT’s premios ’17 de Mayo’ in 2019 in the equal treatment category for being an “example of good practices in the management of diversity and respect for the equality of people in his company.”

The population of women in La Rioja was 156,200 in 2020.[119] There were four hate crimes reported to the Ministerio del Interior, Secretaría de Estado de Seguridad in the whole of La Rioja in 2020. This represented 1.3 hate crimes per 100,000 people. Three were based on ideology and one was based on age. None were based on sexual orientation or gender identity. Five people were detained based on investigations, all for ideology. One person accused of discrimination based on sex or gender was cleared of wrongdoing.[120]

Coordinadora del 8-M is the organizer of the International Women’s Labor Day March in Logroño. On 6 March 2020, ahead of their march in discussions with the media, organization representative María Pérez Fajardo said, “We come back because they don’t want us to go out on the street or dance; we come back because they don’t want us to be seen, they don’t want us to be heard, because they want us to shut up and not make noise; we return because the street, the public and the visible is also ours; we return because patriarchy is fought with feminism; we come back because twenty-year-old boys think they can do whatever they want with a fifteen-year-old girl and then go home and play Parcheesi; because of the wage gap; by rationalized women, lesbians, migrants, with functional diversity…”. The march started on 8 March 2020 at the fuente de las ‘Espaldas Mojadas’. It was preceded by an opportunity for marchers to make their own posters at colegio Madre de Dios earlier in the day.[121]

On 3 May 2021, Hospital San Pedro refused to register Iris, the daughter of a lesbian couple named Irene and Isabel. They were told that they needed to go to the Registro Civil to register her birth. This was despite the fact that the couple are married, had Iris’s birth certificate and their family book. The Gobierno de La Rioja said after the incident that it was an error that would not be repeated. [122]

The XI Jornadas sobre Diversidad Afectivo Sexual y de Género ‘Diversidad y Disidencia’ de la Universidad de La Rioja took place on 13 September 2021, with the directora general of the Diversidad Sexual y Derechos LGTBI of the Ministerio de Igualdad Boti García Rodrigo inagurating the event. The conference took place at the Aula Magna in Edificio Quintiliano and in the Salón de Actos in Edificio Filologías. There was no lesbian specific programming at the conference.[123]

The Asociación Los Niños son Intocables denounced the town hall of Calahorra, Logroño and the Gobierno de La Rioja for hanging the rainbow flag on 25 June 2021 in celebration of Orgullo, citing ley 39/1981 which prohibited the flying from government building of any unofficial flags.

There was a lesbian classified ad on clasf in 2021 for Villalba de Rioja for a couple in their late 40s seeking a woman for a threesome, with the advertisement highlighting the man’s penis size.

El Día de La Rioja published an article on 5 December 2021 titled “Historia negra: Cid lésbico” by Ilia Galán that was a criticism of the British television show Bridgerton for re-imagining the English Regency period with black people in positions of power and influence. The article concluded with a bit of lesbophobia tossed in at the end, saying such an offense was akin to re-imagining El Cid with El Cid being a lesbian, something not even Stalinist Russia would do.[124]

Visibilidad Lésbica La Rioja was created on Twitter in March 2022.

The Grupo Paralentario Socialista organized a Jornadas Parlamentarias Visibilidad Lésbica: Igualdad de Derechos y Oportunidades on 25 April 2022. Regional representatives included Diputado and La Rioja PSOE LGTBI Secretary Raquel Pedraja who spoke at the opening ceremony, Pedraja, Diputado and PSC LGTBI Secretary Arnau Ramírez, Parlamento de Canarias Diputado Nira Fierro, Deputy at a session titled Politcas Contra la LGTBIfobia, which was not lesbian specific on Lesbian Visibility Day.

Marea Arcoíris organized a 26 April 2022 Día de la Visibilidad Lésbica protest at Plaza del Mercado with the motto “Aquí estamos las lesbianas”. The Madrid group Batucada que Entiende had a presence at the event. Among their demands were that women who like women stop being treated like a product for male heterosexual consumption.[125]

xaffair.net is a relationship site for people looking to cheat founded in 2019 that includes a section for gays and lesbians. The site has a history of putting up fake profiles which message people, with the goal of encouraging people to buy their premium service. It is unclear how often this happens in Spain or with lesbian members. There was only one lesbian listed as seeking partners from Alfaro in May 2022, and that was a 25-year-old. There was only one lesbian from Logroño in May 2022, and that also was a 25-year-old.

clasf.es, a Spanish classified ad site, has a section for lesbian dating. In May 2022, it had only one advert for Ezcaray, and that was a man offering lesbian sperm for €50 to get pregnant, something which not legal in Spain as the law states the donations must be anonymous and altruistic.

In April 2022, there were nine Asian lesbians in Spain listed on the online dating site, Pink Cupid. One was from Logroño, aged 19. She was one of twenty-five teen lesbians in Spain listed on the online dating site.

There was one room for rent on Idealista in April 2022 in Calahorra that was listed as being LGTB friendly. The lodgings had male and female roommates all under the age of 30. There was one room for rent in Arnedo that was listed as being LGTB friendly. The lodgings had male and female roommates all under the age of 30. There were eighteen rooms in Logroño that was listed as being LGTB friendly. Seven of these were with female only roommates. This accounted for twenty of the total LGTB friendly rooms for rent in all of La Rioja.

The Evaluación del Bachillerato para el Acceso a la Universidad (EBAU) in La Rioja took place in the first week of June 2022 in Logroño and Calahorra; the students were the first in Spain to take these exams. Among the questions in the literature section were two texts, with students able to chose either one about feminism or one about the war in Ukraine. The feminist text was by the recently deceased novelist Almudena Grandes. This feminist text spoke about the gender identity of female sexuality. The theoretical section of the literature also had a section where students had the choice to respond about poetry in the 1960s or the theatrical work of Federico García Lorca, one of Spain’s greatest writers who was killed by the Franco regime in part because he was a homosexual. Plataforma Trans, ARTRA and Marea Arco Iris sent a letter to the Consejería de Educación, Cultura, Deporte y Juventud de La Rioja in response to the text, complaining that the text stated that transgender rights are contrary to women’s rights. Their letter stated this issue was a hoax, absolutely false and done “with the aim of stigmatizing and criminalizing one of the most vulnerable groups in society”. The letter stated the exam question violated the Law of Equality because the question “go[es] against its principles of guarantee of rights and protection against discrimination, is to attack democracy and impose a debate from ideological positions in which trans identities are denied, the principle of equality and the stigma is perpetuated.” They demanded the immediate withdraw of the text from the exam because it could be in subject to sanction for being an infraction against the Ley Trans de la Rioja. On social media, there was a mixed response from the left to the text and the response by LGTB organizations; there were trans allies who were very unhappy about this question but there were also members of the LGB community and the radical and abolitionist feminist community who did not see any issue with the text.[126]

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Europa Press. (2020, March 4). Una investigación concluye que la mayoría de las mujeres lesbianas han defendido las reivindicaciones feministas. Europa Press. Retrieved from https://www.europapress.es/la-rioja/noticia-investigacion-concluye-mayoria-mujeres-lesbianas-defendido-reivindicaciones-feministas-20200304101950.html

Europa Press. (2022, April 22). Marea Arcoíris organiza este sábado una manifestación por la visibilidad lésbica. Europa Press. Retrieved from https://www.europapress.es/la-rioja/noticia-marea-arcoiris-organiza-sabado-manifestacion-visibilidad-lesbica-20220422200134.html

Federación de Enseñanza de CCOO. (2017). 17 de mayor día internacional contra la LGTB´+fobia: Quienes hablan mal de ti, necesitan aires nuevoes. Madrid: Federación de Enseñanza de CCOO.

FOESSA. (1983). Informe sociológico sobre el cambio social de España : 1975-1983. IV, Informe FOESSA, Volumen II. Madrid: Fundación FOESSA. doi:8424003071

Galán, I. (2021, December 5). Historia negra: Cid lésbico. El Día de La Rioja. Retrieved from https://www.eldiadelarioja.es/Noticia/Z625F3410-B720-A77E-0ED7F400C21297D6/202112/Historia-negra-Cid-lesbico

Gobierno de La Rioja. (2020). Fueron esenciales para que nosotras hagamos historia. Retrieved from Gobierno de La Rioja: https://web.larioja.org/landing/mujeres-con-historia/

Goicoechea Gaona, M. Á., Clavo Sebastián, M. J., & Álvarez Terán, R. (2019, June). Feminismo y derechos para las mujeres homosexuales. Feminismo, 297-322. doi:: 10.14198/fem.2019.33.12

Instituto Nacional de Estadística. (2021). Población residente por fecha, sexo y edad. Retrieved from Instituto Nacional de Estadística: https://www.ine.es/jaxiT3/Tabla.htm?t=9681&L=0

La Rioja. (2008, February 14). GYLDA pide el voto para los partidos progresistas. La Rioja. Retrieved from https://www.larioja.com/prensa/20080214/rioja-region/gylda-pide-voto-para-20080214.html

La Rioja. (2017, November 7). Marina Blanco replaces Paz Manso in Cambia Logroño. La Rioja. Retrieved from https://www.larioja.com/la-rioja/marina-blanco-sustituye-20171107201129-nt.html

La Rioja. (2018, April 25). Cambia pide fomentar políticas que aborden la realidad de las mujeres lesbianas. La Rioja. Retrieved from https://www.larioja.com/logrono/cambia-pide-fomentar-20180425182034-nt.html

La Rioja. (2018, November 2018). Entre el 60 y el 80% de los delitos de odio en LA RIOJA no se denuncian. La Rioja. Retrieved from https://www.larioja.com/la-rioja/delitos-odio-denuncian-20181129150332-nt.html

La Rioja. (2019, April 12). Gylda invita a la ciudadanía riojana a rechazar el «mensaje de odio LGTBI+ de Hazte Oír». La Rioja. Retrieved from https://web.archive.org/web/20190413135119/https://www.larioja.com/la-rioja/gylda-invita-ciudadania-20190412101211-nt.html

larioja.com. (2020). Logroño celebra sus 200 años sin Inquisición. (larioja.com, Ed.) La Rioja. Retrieved from https://especial.larioja.com/2020/historias-rioja/inquisicion.php

Larraz, I. (2012, May 20). «Las madres también debemos salir del armario». El Correo. Retrieved from https://www.elcorreo.com/vizcaya/v/20120520/rioja/madres-tambien-debemos-salir-20120520.html

López, I. (2018, August 2). La Inquisición en La Rioja: las brujas de Logroño. El Correo. Retrieved from https://www.elcorreo.com/planes/brujas-logrono-20180803130447-nt.html

Madrigal, F., & Vera, J. (2017, June 23). El mapa del poder homosexual en la España de las autonomías: los 90 personajes influyentes. El Español. Retrieved from https://www.elespanol.com/reportajes/20170623/225978269_0.html

Marea Arcoíris. (2018, April 12). MAREA ARCOÍRIS DENUNCIA UNA OLEADA DE AGRESIONES POR ORIENTACIÓN SEXUAL E IDENTIDAD DE GÉNERO EN LA CIUDAD DE LOGROÑO. Retrieved from Marea Arcoíris: https://arcoirisenlarioja.blogspot.com/2018/04/marea-arcoiris-denuncia-una-oleada-de.html

Martin, M. (2018, April 11). LA RIOJAAgresión homófoba en Logroño al ritmo del ‘Cara al sol’. nuevecuatrouno. Retrieved from https://nuevecuatrouno.com/2018/04/11/agresion-homofoba-en-logrono-al-ritmo-del-cara-al-sol/

Memorias en Red. (2018, February 28). Las cigarreras de Lavapiés. Memorias en Red. Retrieved from http://memoriasenred.es/las-cigarreras/

Ministerio del Interior. (2014). Informe 2013 sobre la evolución de “los delitos de odio” en España. Ministerio del Interior, Servicios al ciudadano. Madrid: Ministerio del Interior. Retrieved from http://www.interior.gob.es/documents/642012/3479677/Informe+sobre+los+delitos+de+odio+en+Espa%C3%B1a+2013.pdf/6f10f526-80f7-47a0-911b-d27c61c6cf40

Ministerio del Interior. (2015). Informe 2014 sobre la evolución de “los delitos de odio” en España. Madrid: Ministerio del Interior.

Ministerio del Interior. (2018). Informe 2017 sobre la evolución de “los delitos de odio” en España. Madrid: Ministerio del Interior. Retrieved from http://www.interior.gob.es/documents/10180/7146983/ESTUDIO+INCIDENTES+DELITOS+DE+ODIO+2017+v3.pdf/5d9f1996-87ee-4e30-bff4-e2c68fade874

Ministerio del Interior. (2019). Informe 2018 sobre la evolución de “los delitos de odio” en España. Madrid: Ministerio del Interior. Retrieved from http://www.interior.gob.es/documents/642012/3479677/informe+2018/ab86b6d9-090b-465b-bd14-cfcafccdfebc

Ministerio del Interior. (2020). Informe 2019 sobre la evolución de “los delitos de odio” en España. Madrid: Ministerio del Interior. Retrieved from http://www.interior.gob.es/documents/642012/3479677/informe+evolucion+2019/631ce020-f9d0-4feb-901c-c3ee0a777896

Ministerio del Interior. (2021). Informe 2020 sobre la evolución de “los delitos de odio” en España. Madrid: Ministerio del Interior. Retrieved from http://www.interior.gob.es/documents/642012/13622471/Informe+sobre+la+evoluci%C3%B3n+de+delitos+de+odio+en+Espa%C3%B1a+a%C3%B1o+2020.pdf/bc4738d2-ebe6-434f-9516-5d511a894cb9

Moreno Galilea, D. (2018). El asociacionismo femenino rural en la lucha por la autonomía riojana (1970-1983). Actas del XIV Congreso de la Asociación de Historia Contemporánea «del siglo XIX al XXI. Tendencias y debates» (pp. 936-944). Alicante: Asociación de Historia Contemporánea. Retrieved from https://www.academia.edu/41097656/El_asociacionismo_femenino_rural_en_la_lucha_por_la_autonom%C3%ADa_riojana_1970_1983_

Moreno, J. C. (2012, September 13). La Rioja no es lugar para salir del armario. Huffington Post. Retrieved from https://www.huffingtonpost.es/juan-carlos-moreno/la-rioja-no-es-lugar-para_b_1655791.html

Moreno, J. C. (2012, July 7). Nadie dará la cara por los homosexuales en La Rioja. OcioGay.com. Retrieved from https://web.archive.org/web/20130308041547/http://www.ociogay.com/2012/07/07/nadie-dara-la-cara-por-los-homosexuales-en-la-rioja/

Muga, L. (2020, March 8). «El feminismo no nació ayer»: historia del movimiento en La Rioja. nuevecuatrouno. Retrieved from https://nuevecuatrouno.com/2020/03/08/rioja-logrono-feminismo-historia-derechos-reivindicaciones-calles/

Muga, L. (2020, December 13). Los primeros pasos hacia el cambio: «Hola, soy trans». nuevecuatrouno. Retrieved from https://nuevecuatrouno.com/2020/12/13/relato-personas-trans-primeros-pasos-cambio/

Nenazas. (2022). Retrieved from Nenazas: https://nenazasblog.wordpress.com/

nuevecuatrouno. (2018, March 6). El PSOE de Calahorra denuncia el reparto de octavillas homófobas en la puerta de un colegio. nuevecuatrouno. Retrieved from https://nuevecuatrouno.com/2018/03/06/el-psoe-de-calahorra-denuncia-el-reparto-de-octavillas-homofobas-en-la-puerta-de-un-colegio/

nuevecuatrouno. (2018, April 13). La Marea Arcoíris alerta de la «inseguridad» en las calles de Logroño a causa de la homofobia. nuevecuatrouno. Retrieved from https://nuevecuatrouno.com/2018/04/13/la-marea-arcoiris-alerta-de-la-inseguridad-en-las-calles-de-logrono-a-causa-de-la-homofobia/

nuevecuatrouno. (2019, November 15). Cutillas y Rubio, dos diputados riojanos de VOX en la Asamblea de Madrid. nuevecuatrouno. Retrieved from https://nuevecuatrouno.com/2019/11/15/rioja-politica-vox-santiago-abascal-jorge-cutillas-alicia-rubio-polemica/

nuevecuatrouno. (2019, November 15). La riojana Alicia Rubio la lía en la Asamblea de Madrid: «El feminismo es cáncer». nuevecuatrouno. Retrieved from https://nuevecuatrouno.com/2019/11/15/rioja-logrono-asamblea-madrid-alicia-rubio-vox-feminismo/

nuevecuatrouno. (2020, March 6). Este 8-M las riojanas gritarán: ‘Luchando molestamos; solo muertas importamos’. nuevecuatrouno. Retrieved from https://nuevecuatrouno.com/2020/03/06/rioja-logrono-ocho-marzo-coordinadora-feminismo/

observatorio Redes Contra Odio. (2018). La cara oculta de la violencia hacia el colectivo LGTBI. Madrid: FELGTB.

P., E. (2013, August 9). El primer desfile del orgullo gay de Arnedillo avivó ayer el ambiente prefestivo. La Rioja. Retrieved from https://www.larioja.com/v/20130802/rioja-comarcas/primer-desfile-orgullo-arnedillo-20130802.html

Pajares Ramos, N. (2019, June 18). Marea Arcoíris: «Esperamos que el cambio de Gobierno favorezca al colectivo LGTBi+». nuevecuatrouno. Retrieved from https://nuevecuatrouno.com/2019/06/18/orgullo-lgtbi-rioja-gobierno-educacion-arcoiris/

Portal de Archivos Españoles (PARES). (2019). Corporate Body – Tribunal de la Inquisición de Logroño (La Rioja, España). Retrieved from Portal de Archivos Españoles (PARES): http://pares.mcu.es/ParesBusquedas20/catalogo/autoridad/48992

PSOE La Rioja. (2018, April 26). El PSOE apuesta por la visibilidad de las mujeres lesbianas y bisexuales para combatir la injusticia y la desigualdad, especialmente en el ámbito rural. Retrieved from PSOE La Rioja: https://psoelarioja.es/el-psoe-apuesta-por-la-visibilidad-de-las-mujeres-lesbianas-y-bisexuales-para-combatir-la-injusticia-y-la-desigualdad-especialmente-en-el-ambito-rural/

rioja2. (2010, March 23). ‘Educación en la diversidad en el ámbito familiar’ próxima conferencia en la UR. rioja2. Retrieved from https://www.rioja2.com/n-60415-2-Educacion_diversidad_ambito_familiar_proxima_conferencia_UR/

rioja2. (2010, March 23). ‘Educación en la diversidad en el ámbito familiar’ próxima conferencia en la UR. rioja2. Retrieved from https://www.rioja2.com/n-60415-2-Educacion_diversidad_ambito_familiar_proxima_conferencia_UR/

rioja2. (2010, May 12). El peligro del rechazo. rioja2. Retrieved from https://www.rioja2.com/n-63273-702-peligro_rechazo/

rioja2. (2010, March 21). I Jornadas sobre Educación en Diversidad Afectivo-Sexual. rioja2. Retrieved from https://www.rioja2.com/n-60066-2-I_Jornadas_sobre_Educacion_Diversidad_AfectivoSexual/

rioja2. (2010, March 25). La sociedad riojana sigue tolerando la homofobia. rioja2. Retrieved from https://www.rioja2.com/n-60488-2-sociedad_riojana_sigue_tolerando_homofobia/

rioja2. (2011, February 17). La Rioja estará presente en las jornadas anuales AMPGYL. rioja2. Retrieved from https://www.rioja2.com/n-75880-2-Rioja_estara_presente_jornadas_anuales_AMPGYL/

rioja2. (2016, January 13). Las mujeres homosexuales siguen ocultando más su condición. rioja2. Retrieved from https://www.rioja2.com/n-101564-2-mujeres_homosexuales_siguen_ocultando_condicion/

rioja2. (2017, June 27). “Las lesbianas tenemos doble discriminación: por ser LGTBI+ y por ser mujeres”. rioja2. Retrieved from https://www.rioja2.com/n-111781-2-las-lesbianas-tenemos-doble-discriminacion-por-ser-lgtbi-y-por-ser-mujeres/

rioja2. (2018, July 25). “Hoy hemos sentido mucho apoyo aunque también ha habido algún empujón, zancadillas e insultos”. rioja2. Retrieved from https://rioja2.com/n-122430-2-hoy-hemos-sentido-mucho-apoyo-aunque-tambien-ha-habido-algun-empujon-zancadillas-e-insultos/

rioja2. (2018, May 18). Aumentan un 34% las víctimas de violencia de género con orden de protección en La Rioja. rioja2. Retrieved from https://www.rioja2.com/n-120609-2-aumentan-un-34-las-victimas-de-violencia-de-genero-con-orden-de-proteccion-en-la-rioja/

rioja2. (2018, May 22). La Unidad de Igualdad de la UR, premiada por su defensa de los derechos LGTBI. rioja2. Retrieved from https://www.rioja2.com/n-120444-2-la-unidad-de-igualdad-de-la-ur-premiada-por-su-defensa-de-los-derechos-lgtbi/

rioja2. (2018, March 14). Las minorías de las minorías en las Jornadas sobre Diversidad Afectivo-Sexual y de Género. rioja2. Retrieved from https://www.rioja2.com/n-118299-2-las-minorias-de-las-minorias-en-las-jornadas-sobre-diversidad-afectivo-sexual-y-de-genero/

rioja2. (2018, April 25). Más visibilidad para las mujeres lesbianas. rioja2. Retrieved from https://www.rioja2.com/n-119593-3-mas-visibilidad-para-las-mujeres-lesbianas/

rioja2. (2019, November 26). La Rioja es la única comunidad de España sin asesinatos machistas en la última década. rioja2. Retrieved from https://www.rioja2.com/n-137466-2-la-rioja-es-la-unica-comunidad-de-espana-sin-asesinatos-machistas-en-la-ultima-decada/

rioja2. (2019, March 25). La UR aborda las X Jornadas sobre Diversidad Afectivo-Sexual y de Género. rioja2. Retrieved from https://www.rioja2.com/n-130163-2-la-ur-aborda-las-x-jornadas-sobre-diversidad-afectivo-sexual-y-de-genero/

rioja2. (2021, September 10). La UR acoge este lunes las XI Jornadas de Diversidad Afectivo Sexual y de Género. rioja2. Retrieved from https://www.rioja2.com/n-156066-2-la-ur-acoge-este-lunes-las-xi-jornadas-de-diversidad-afectivo-sexual-y-de-genero/

rioja2. (2021, May 6). Las trabas para registrar a tu bebé si eres una pareja lesbiana. rioja2. Retrieved from https://www.rioja2.com/n-152535-2-las-trabas-para-registrar-a-tu-bebe-si-eres-una-pareja-lesbiana/

S., S. (2022, June 2). Un artículo sobre feminismo y personas trans de Almudena Grandes inaugura la EBAU en España. ABC (Spain). Retrieved from https://www.abc.es/sociedad/abci-articulo-sobre-feminismo-y-personas-trans-almudena-grandes-inaugura-ebau-espana-202206021745_noticia.html#vca=rrss&vmc=abc-es&vso=tw&vli=cm-general&_tcode=NmU0Y20x

Saenz Orduna, B. (2016, June 6). Sexualidad: ¿Sabemos qué ven nuestrxs hijxs/alumnxs en televisión, internet…? rioja2. Retrieved from https://www.rioja2.com/opinion-104904-sexualidad-sabemos-que-ven-nuestrxs-hijxs-alumnxs-en-television-internet/

Sainz, S. (2022). Cuando Iberpop puso a La Rioja en el mapa. (larioja.com, Ed.) La Rioja. Retrieved from https://especial.larioja.com/2022/quefuede/iberpop.php

Sanfeliu, L. (2007, June). Escrito en el cuerpo. Sexualidades femeninas al margen de la norma heterosexual. Arenal, 14(1), 31-57.

Soto, A. (2007, May 16). «Se sorprenderían muchos si supieran qué políticos son ‘gays’». La Rioja. Retrieved from https://www.larioja.com/prensa/20070516/rioja_region/sorprenderian-muchos-supieran-politicos_20070516.html

Torres Arce, M. (2007). La inquisición en el ámbito Riojano. Kalakorikos, 12, 289-300.

Val Cubero, A. (2003). La mujer logroñesa a través de la imagen en el siglo XX. Logroño: Gobierno de La Rioja, Instituto de Estudios Riojanos.

Varela, J., Parra Contreras, P., & Val Cubero, A. (2016). Memorias para hacer camino. Madrid: Ediciones Morata, S.L.,.

Vázquez Fernández, I. (2020). Propuesta de visibilización del colectivo lésbico a través de la cultura. Valladolid: Universidad de Valladolid. Retrieved from https://uvadoc.uva.es/bitstream/handle/10324/43390/TFM-J-48.pdf?sequence=1

Villar Sáenz, A. (June 2008). El Lesbianianismo en el Movimiento Feminista y los Colectivos de Lesbianas. :Centro de Estudios y Documentación para las libertades sexuales / ALDARTE. Basque Country: :Centro de Estudios y Documentación para las libertades sexuales / ALDARTE.


[1] (Instituto Nacional de Estadística, 2021)

[2] (López, 2018; Torres Arce, 2007)

[3] (Portal de Archivos Españoles (PARES), 2019; larioja.com, 2020)

[4] (Ejecutoria del pleito litigado por el fiscal de la Chancillería con Gabriel de la Cueva, francés, vecino de Logroño (La Rioja), sobre acusación de pecado nefando con Martín de Soria, niño de doce años., 1578; Ejecutoria del pleito litigado por el fiscal del rey, con Martín García, preso en Logroño (La Rioja), sobre práctica del pecado nefando, 1572; Arrieta, Rafael, 1752)

[5] (Val Cubero, 2003; Anders, 2022; Sanfeliu, 2007)

[6] (Memorias en Red, 2018; Gobierno de La Rioja, 2020)

[7] (Memorias en Red, 2018; Gobierno de La Rioja, 2020)

[8] (EFE, 2016)

[9] (Muga, «El feminismo no nació ayer»: historia del movimiento en La Rioja, 2020)

[10] (Sanfeliu, 2007)

[11] (Val Cubero, 2003)

[12] (Goicoechea Gaona, Clavo Sebastián, & Álvarez Terán, 2019)

[13] (Moreno Galilea, 2018; Val Cubero, 2003)

[14] (Moreno Galilea, 2018)

[15] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, Conciencia Social y política de las mujeres que aman a mujeres en la transición al siglo XXI en La Rioja, 2019)

[16] (Codina Canet, 2020)

[17] (Moreno Galilea, 2018; Val Cubero, 2003; FOESSA, 1983)

[18] (Moreno Galilea, 2018; Val Cubero, 2003)

[19] (Moreno Galilea, 2018; Val Cubero, 2003)

[20] (Goicoechea Gaona, Clavo Sebastián, & Álvarez Terán, 2019)

[21] (Villar Sáenz, June 2008; Varela, Parra Contreras, & Val Cubero, 2016)

[22] (Val Cubero, 2003)

[23] (Sainz, 2022)

[24] (Díez, 2020)

[25] (Moreno, La Rioja no es lugar para salir del armario, 2012)

[26] (B.V., 2011)

[27] (B.V., 2011)

[28] (Díez, 2020; P., 2013)

[29] (Soto, 2007)

[30] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, Conciencia Social y política de las mujeres que aman a mujeres en la transición al siglo XXI en La Rioja, 2019)

[31] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, Conciencia Social y política de las mujeres que aman a mujeres en la transición al siglo XXI en La Rioja, 2019)

[32] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, Conciencia Social y política de las mujeres que aman a mujeres en la transición al siglo XXI en La Rioja, 2019)

[33] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, Conciencia Social y política de las mujeres que aman a mujeres en la transición al siglo XXI en La Rioja, 2019)

[34] (La Rioja, 2008; Moreno, Nadie dará la cara por los homosexuales en La Rioja, 2012)

[35] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, Conciencia Social y política de las mujeres que aman a mujeres en la transición al siglo XXI en La Rioja, 2019)

[36] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, Conciencia Social y política de las mujeres que aman a mujeres en la transición al siglo XXI en La Rioja, 2019)

[37] (rioja2, 2010)

[38] (rioja2, 2010)

[39] (Crespo, 2012)

[40] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, Conciencia Social y política de las mujeres que aman a mujeres en la transición al siglo XXI en La Rioja, 2019)

[41] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, Conciencia Social y política de las mujeres que aman a mujeres en la transición al siglo XXI en La Rioja, 2019)

[42] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, Conciencia Social y política de las mujeres que aman a mujeres en la transición al siglo XXI en La Rioja, 2019)

[43] (Europa Press, 2020)

[44] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, Conciencia Social y política de las mujeres que aman a mujeres en la transición al siglo XXI en La Rioja, 2019)

[45] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, Conciencia Social y política de las mujeres que aman a mujeres en la transición al siglo XXI en La Rioja, 2019)

[46] English: Literally, sexist murder. It means a victim of sex-based violence at the hands of a man.

[47] English: Literally, sexist violence.  In Spanish, it is used to mean gender violence and partner violence without obscuring who is committing the violence.

[48] (rioja2, 2019)

[49] (rioja2, 2016)

[50] (EFE, 2016; rioja2, 2016)

[51] (Moreno, La Rioja no es lugar para salir del armario, 2012)

[52] (Larraz, 2012)

[53] (rioja2, 2010)

[54] (Larraz, 2012; Moreno, La Rioja no es lugar para salir del armario, 2012)

[55] (Larraz, 2012; Moreno, La Rioja no es lugar para salir del armario, 2012)

[56] (rioja2, 2010)

[57] (rioja2, 2011)

[58] (Larraz, 2012)

[59] (EFE, 2016)

[60] (rioja2, 2010; rioja2, 2010; rioja2, 2010)

[61] (rioja2, 2010; Moreno, La Rioja no es lugar para salir del armario, 2012)

[62] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, Conciencia Social y política de las mujeres que aman a mujeres en la transición al siglo XXI en La Rioja, 2019)

[63] (Moreno, Nadie dará la cara por los homosexuales en La Rioja, 2012)

[64] (Moreno, La Rioja no es lugar para salir del armario, 2012)

[65] (Ministerio del Interior, 2014)

[66] English: Tomboy.  Considered vulgar and offensive, and historically used that way as a word to describe lesbians.

[67] Spanish: “iros a comer el pene unas a otras”

[68] (rioja2, 2018)

[69] (Europa Press, 2016; rioja2, 2016)

[70] (Saenz Orduna, 2016)

[71] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, Conciencia Social y política de las mujeres que aman a mujeres en la transición al siglo XXI en La Rioja, 2019)

[72] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, Conciencia Social y política de las mujeres que aman a mujeres en la transición al siglo XXI en La Rioja, 2019)

[73] (rioja2, 2017)

[74] (rioja2, 2017)

[75] (CENIE, 2019)

[76] (Ministerio del Interior, 2015)

[77] (EFE, 2016)

[78] (EFE, 2016)

[79] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, Conciencia Social y política de las mujeres que aman a mujeres en la transición al siglo XXI en La Rioja, 2019)

[80] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, 2019; Nenazas, 2022)

[81] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, Conciencia Social y política de las mujeres que aman a mujeres en la transición al siglo XXI en La Rioja, 2019)

[82] (Europa Press, 2015)

[83] (rioja2, 2016)

[84] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, Conciencia Social y política de las mujeres que aman a mujeres en la transición al siglo XXI en La Rioja, 2019)

[85] (CENIE, 2019)

[86] (CENIE, 2019)

[87] (rioja2, 2018)

[88] (Goicoechea Gaona, Clavo Sebastián, & Álvarez Terán, 2019)

[89] (Goicoechea Gaona, Clavo Sebastián, & Álvarez Terán, 2019)

[90] (Goicoechea Gaona, Clavo Sebastián, & Álvarez Terán, 2019)

[91] (Goicoechea Gaona, Clavo Sebastián, & Álvarez Terán, 2019)

[92] (Goicoechea Gaona, Clavo Sebastián, & Álvarez Terán, 2019)

[93] (Pajares Ramos, 2019)

[94] (Muga, Los primeros pasos hacia el cambio: «Hola, soy trans», 2020)

[95] (Federación de Enseñanza de CCOO, 2017)

[96] (Vázquez Fernández, 2020)

[97] (La Rioja, 2018)

[98] (Ministerio del Interior, 2018)

[99] (observatorio Redes Contra Odio, 2018)

[100] (Ministerio del Interior, 2019)

[101] (nuevecuatrouno, 2018)

[102] (Marea Arcoíris, 2018; nuevecuatrouno, 2018; rioja2, 2018)

[103] Spanish: “mira a estas bolleras de mierda” and “vamos a ponerles el cara al sol para que aprendan”.

[104] (Marea Arcoíris, 2018; nuevecuatrouno, 2018; Martin, 2018; rioja2, 2018)

[105] (Ministerio del Interior, 2020)

[106] (La Rioja, 2019)

[107] (nuevecuatrouno, 2019; nuevecuatrouno, 2019)

[108] (Madrigal & Vera, 2017)

[109] (La Rioja, 2018; rioja2, 2018)

[110] (La Rioja, 2018; rioja2, 2018)

[111] (Pajares Ramos, 2019)

[112] (PSOE La Rioja, 2018)

[113] (La Rioja, 2017)

[114] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, Conciencia Social y política de las mujeres que aman a mujeres en la transición al siglo XXI en La Rioja, 2019; Campos, 2019)

[115] (rioja2, 2018)

[116] (rioja2, 2018)

[117] (rioja2, 2019)

[118] (Pajares Ramos, 2019)

[119] (CENIE, 2019)

[120] (Ministerio del Interior, 2021)

[121] (nuevecuatrouno, 2020; Europa Press, 2020)

[122] (rioja2, 2021)

[123] (rioja2, 2021)

[124] (Galán, 2021)

[125] (Europa Press, 2022)

[126] (S., 2022; EFE; Radio Rioja, 2022)

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Alfaro, Anguiano, Arnedo, Calahorra, Cervera, Ezcaray, Haro, Logroño, Nájera, Camero Nuevo, Santo Domingo de la Calzada, Camero Viejo

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