A history of Pride in Logroño

            Pride, known as Orgullo in Spanish, appears to have first been celebrated in Logroño in 1981, around four years after the first recognized homosexual march took place in Barcelona and around ten years after the first lesbian led march in honor of Christopher Street Liberation Day took place in Madrid.[1]  That year, Asociación Feminista Riojana (AFR) held a conference on 28 June to raise awareness of homosexual rights and lesbians in honor of Orgullo, then called Día Internacional Para la Liberación de Homosexuales y Lesbianas. AFR had frequently been hesitant to talk about lesbianism. The event though was a one off, and not repeated. [2]

Grupo de Lesbianas de La Rioja was founded in 1985, with some of its members likely having been involved with AFR.  By 1987, members of the group were working with and attending events with lesbians from other parts of the country, including the Basque Country and Madrid.[3] This coincided the second documented Pride event in Logroño, an event that was organized by AFR in June 1987 with a talk titled, “Lesbianas ¿por qué no?” at Sala de Cultura Gonzalo de Berceo. The 25 June 1987 talk featured a speaker from the Colectivo de Lesbianas Feminists de Madrid. The poster for the event featured two naked women embracing.  This was highly unusual because AFR still rarely discussed lesbianism in print, let alone doing so with pictures.[4]

            Recognition of 26 June as the International Homosexual and Lesbian Liberation Day then seem to disappear, with no programming, events, manifestos, flag raising for the next 17 years, even as events continued on, though in many places at much lower levels, in other places in Spain. [5]  When recognition of Pride finally happens again in La Rioja, it is at the headquarters of PSOE at Plaza Martínez Zaporta. This was the beginning of the Zapatero era, with new PSOE president José Luis Rodriguez Zapatero having come to power nationally on, among other things, the promise of marriage equality and adoption rights for same-sex couples.  These promises helped to rejuvenate LGTB communities in places like La Rioja and elsewhere nationally where activism had tremendously fallen off after the initial gains in freedom in the Democratic transition period.  The rainbow flag would fly at PSOE’s Logroño headquarters almost every year between 2004 and 2014. [6]

GYLDA, who were founded in December 1995, appear to be the first group to organize regular activities in celebration of Pride, with their first major documented event being the hosting of an LGTB film series that ran from at least 2005 to 2008, with venues that hosted screenings including Cines Moderno. [7] The first “official” Pride event in the context it was then recognized as was organized by GYLDA in June 2006. Among those events was the film festival, which was in its second year. [8]

National and local organizing for Pride in 2007 took place at the Hotel Carlton de Logroño, with the meeting attended by GYLDA and FELGTB meeting in April. The group decided the theme for nationally and for Orgullo 2007 Logroño would be Decepción.  This was in reference to things taking place in regional and local governments, including those of the office of the President of the Gobierno de La Rioja and by the town hall of Logroño. Interest in assisting in planning the event was large, with people from 43 associations participating and the hotel being jammed. FELGTB Board member Boti García Rodrigo complimented the local organizers for their work, saying, “They have done a very powerful and very important job. They have achieved meetings of a very high level both in organization and in infrastructure, which has been backed by the high participation.” The Logroño meeting was also important for national organization as Madrid was hosting EuroPride that year. The motto for the Madrid event was chosen by participants as “Now Europe: Equality is possible”.[9] Part of the Pride celebrations that took place in Logroño was the film series organized by GYLDA.[10]

In 2008, the ayuntamiento de Logroño hosted an act recognizing GLYDA for the first time as part of Orgullo celebrations. Concejala de Igualdad Concepción Arribas and Concejala de Derechos Sociales Pilar Criado participated in ceremony where they received the rainbow flag from GYLDA in 2008. It was the first-time representatives from the town hall participated in such an act. [11] Rainbow flags were also hung at the office of the Rectorado at the Universidad de La Rioja. GYLDA hung posters on the campus of the Universidad de La Rioja to advertise Orgullo festivities. [12]

Political parties beyond PSOE also became more visibly involved in Pride. Área de Libertad de Expresión Afectivo-Sexual de Izquierda Unida (IU) called for people to take to the streets for lesbian visibility as part of 2008 Orgullo events. Their claims about lesbians and their needs also included rights around transsexuality and sex re-assignment in public health, along with a reformulation of the National Plan on AIDS. [13]

With lesbian visibility the FELGTB theme for Orgullo 2008, GYLDA decided to adopt the same motto for their own events in Logroño which took place at Plaza del Mercado. Despite the motto being about lesbians, the organizers did not create and lesbian specific programming, nor any other LGTB class specific programming.[14]

While lesbians may not have been very visible in a year dedicated to making them visible, Pride celebrations in Logroño were the biggest to date.  The festivities were arranged in such a way that people could attend them and then go to Madrid on the weekend for that city’s festivities.[15] The biggest event was a stage for musical acts including local La Rioja Eurovision contestant Carola, and the musical group Chico y Chica. Events started with the raising of the rainbow flag at PSOE headquarters, followed by an institutional welcome at the town hall.[16] Other events included a shared meal, and an award ceremony for Premio Rosa given by GYLDA to those have helped achieve LGTB visibility. Things were concluded with a reading of a manifesto at Plaza del Mercado and concluded with the concert. [17] There were some changes though  as GYLDA was unable to hold their  Orgullo connected film cycle in 2008 because the film distributor Pride wanted around €4000 to allow for screening of the movies. GYLDA could not afford that cost as they only charged €3 per person for attendees to see films. They had initially planned to screen three movies at Cines Moderno de Logroño.[18]

            Pride 2009 celebrations, once again organized by GYLDA, took place at Parque de La Ribera, including a ceremony where the rainbow flag was raised.  The motto that year was, “Escuelas sin armarios”. GYLDA also distributed 1,700 STD prevention kids which included condoms and lubricants, with nothing specific to lesbian safe-sex practices, during Pride festivities. There were also a pair of concerts featuring CAROLA and LKAN, and a party with a DJ session at El Sueño de la Musa. The LGTB film series was back again after a break in 2009 with films being shown Cines Moderno in Logroño and Cines Arcca in Calahorra. One of the two movies was the 2008 lesbian themed movie, I Can’t Think Straight.[19]

The rainbow flag was raised elsewhere in the city in 2009, including at the offices of UGT, CC.OO., USO, STAR and CNT, along with Consejo de Juventud de La Rioja, and the political party offices of PSOE, PR, IU, PCPE and UPD. [20]

GYLDA organized Orgullo 2010 in Logroño. A ceremony was held at Plaza del Ayuntamiento, where a delegation from GYLDA met with the local government and mother municipal groups. The official press release around the event was very generic and only mentioned a need to combat generic discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity.

The rainbow flag was raised at PSOE headquarters in Logroño on 28 June 2011 in honor of Orgullo. Juventudes Socialistas de La Rioja also used the date to criticize Partido Popular’s national appeal on the legality of same-sex marriage. PSOE’s event was attended by GYLDA president and Logroño mayor of Clavijo Francisco Pérez, along with the secretaria de Igualdad of PSOE La Rioja Emilia Fernández.[21]

Orgullo 2012 Logroño had more than 60 people coming from different parts of Spain and Europe to attend, including Poland, Denmark, France, Belgium, Palencia, Zaragoza, Pamplona, ​​the Basque Country, Soria, Madrid and La Rioja.[22] Logroño mayor Cuca Gamarra held an institutional meeting with GYLDA president Francisco Javier Pérez Diego and Delegación de La Rioja de la Asociación de Madres y Padres de personas LGTB (AMPGYL) President Marisa Fernández that coincided with Orgullo 2012. The work of GYLDA was recognized at the meeting. The rainbow flag was hung inside the rainbow flag inside the town hall during the meeting.[23] CNT Logroño hung the rainbow flag at the office on 2 July 2012 in honor of Orgullo after a request to do so was made by GYLDA.[24]

In 2013, Cambia Logroño became involved with trying to revitalize the LGTB community especially around Orgullo, considering it an important project. They continued these activities for a number of years.[25]

Marea Arcoíris La Rioja was founded in June 2014 after the disappearance of GYLDA, founded by people who had been LGTBI+ activist and those who had also been involved in other social and political movements. The group stepped into the void in order organize Orgullo in Logroño that year. They used social media to advertise the event and to find financing for the event. Álvaro Villar was the person who led organizing, working with the town hall and others to coordinate the event. [26] Orgullo festivities in 2014 included the traditional concentration in Plaza del Mercado, along with talks, movies, debates and a comic exhibition. [27]

Cambia Logroño asked that the rainbow flag be displayed on the outside of the the Ayuntamiento de Logroño building for Orgullo 2015 Logroño celebrations. The request was made at a press conference with party spokesperson Gonzalo Peña, and Councilors Paz Manso de Zuñiga and Álvaro Villar.  Manso de Zuñiga said it was important given that society still discriminated against LGTB people, a problem which needed to be eradicated, and that it helped show that according to Article 14 of the Spanish constitution that all Spaniards are equal under the law. Their efforts were supported by Marea Arcoirirs, who had made their own request. In the end, their request was denied. [28]

Logroño’s Orgullo 2015 celebration included a float, with mostly men partying on top like they do in Madrid. Signs displayed at the Orgullo 2015 march included ” stereotypes be broken ” and “there are no people hiding”. Marea Arcoíris La Rioja’s Eunate García was the spokesperson for the event. She said that despite a decade having passed with marriage equality, an effort was still needed to make sure all groups were visible and that no one needed to be closeted. She said that young gays and lesbians were bulled in school, but it is rarely publicly discussed and that laws around education needed to be changed so that better solutions can be found for victims. Orgullo activities also included distributing informational material, condoms, a vermouth tasting and a parade.[29]

Cambia Logroño formally participated in Orgullo 2015 Logroño festivities, including at the manifestation, where they had a large rainbow flag and a float. They also held a ‘maribollo’ Olympics event, the first time they did so, and distributed condoms, lubricants and other safe-sex awareness educational materials. It is unclear if any of that material was applicable to lesbians.[30]

Estela P. Mayoral, an activist from Mujeres enRE_BELDÍA held a talk after a screening of 80 egunean at Café Maravilla on 23 June 2015 as part of Orgullo festivities in Logroño. The film is a Basque language lesbian themed movie about elderly lesbians.[31]

The rainbow flag flew from the first-floor balcony of the Casa Consistorial on 28 and 29 June as part of the Ayuntamiento de Logroño Orgullo festivities in 2016. The Muralla del Revellín was also lit in colors of the rainbow on 29 June.[32]

Marea Arcoíris were again involved in organizing Orgullo in 2016, making a call that all citizens participate in the event. Some members of the LGTB community in the city felt uncomfortable in light of the attack on the gay nightclub in Orlanda because their own community did not always feel particularly safe to be out of the closet in. Orgullo organizers wanted the community more involved so that everyone would feel empowered to prevent such a thing from happening in Logroño. Around 1,000 people attended Orgullo that year. [33]

Logroño hosted Orgullo festivities in 2016. There were three events on the program specific to a class in the LGTB collective. One was about lesbians, one about gay men and one about or for trans.  The lesbian themed event was a screening of the movie, Carol. Other more general programming included a bus being organized to take locals from La Rioja to Madrid’s Orgullo celebration that took place on 2 July 2016.  The parade included a tractor being used as a float.  [34]

Logroño hosted Orgullo festivities in 2017. There were only three events on the program specific to a class in the LGTB collective, and two were about or for trans and one was about gay men. Around 1,000 people attended Orgullo that year. [35]

Marea Arcoíris and GYLDA both had concerns about the commercialization of Pride in 2017.  Marea Arcoíris was quoted in El Salto Diario as saying, “Pride can only become an object of consumption if the people who organize it are subjects of consumption”, but they assume that “if companies see business, they will take advantage of it”.  GYLDA was quoted by the same publication as saying that it shared the same concerns  “although we do not believe that in the short term the vindictive character can be lost”.[36]

Marea Arcoíria wrote a manifesto for Orgullo in 2017. It discussed how changes to law do not necessarily change people’s mentalities, and that members of the LGTB community continue to face attacks from ecclesiastical, fascist and sexist areas of society. They included a list of demands, including access to university healthcare and treatment for Hepatitis C patients among others. [37]

In honor of Ogrullo 2017 Logroño, the rainbow flag hung from the facade of centro de cultura juvenil municipal ‘La Gota de Leche’ on 28 June. The Muralla del Revellín was also illuminated in the colors of rainbow from 28 June to 2 July.[38]

Orgullo Rural LGTBI+ 2018 La Rioja took place from 24 to 28 June 2018 in Logroño, with the protest starting at Plaza de Mercado. This took place in conjunction with other Pride celebrations in Fuenmayor and Calahorra. The motto for the event was TRANSforma el CIStema’ and the event was organized by Marea Arcoiris. The Logroño 2018 Orgullo event was focused members of the rural LGTBI+ community. As part of that theme, the looked for a tractor with a trailer or a bus without a roof or a truck with a rear platform for their celebration.  There were three events on the program specific to a class in the LGTB collective. Zero was about lesbians, two about gay men and one about or for trans. Marea Arcoíris fundraised for Orgullo 2018 by doing a crowdfunding campaign that used PayPal. [39]

The Biblioteca de la Universidad de La Rioja and Biblioteca Pública de La Rioja both had a collection of LGTB+ books on display from 17 to 30 June 2018 as part of the city’s Orgullo festivities. Some books were explicitly lesbian, including Fun home by Alison Bechdel, Aitor tiene dos mamás by María José Mendieta, Laura tiene dos mamás by Yolanda Fitó and Mabel Piérola, Oculto sendero by Elena Fortún, Safo de Lesbos: la sonrisa de Afrodita by Peter Green, Deseo y resistencia: treinta años de movilización lesbiana en el Estado español (1977-2007) by Gracia Trujillo Barbadillo, Madres lesbianas: mirada a las maternidades y familias lésbicas en México by Sara Espinosa Islas, Maternidad lesbiana: del deseo a la realidad by Remedios Álvarez Terán, María José Clavo Sebastián, Olaya Fernández Guerrero, María Ángeles Goicoechea Gaona.[40]

Logroño hosted Orgullo festivities on 29 June 2019. There were four events on the program specific to a class in the LGTB collective. Two was about lesbians, zero about gay men, one about or for trans and one about or for queers. One of the lesbian themed programming activity was a screening of the movie Carmen & Lola at Cines Moderno on 25 June 2019. Another lesbian themed item on the program was a screening of Carceles bolleras on 26 June at the Salon de Actors de la Biblioteca de La Rioja. Newspaper coverage of lesbians at Pride was sparse. There were no specific mentions to lesbians in the major festivities as discussed in local newspapers. It was the fifth year that La Rioja Orgullo was held in Logroño. The 2019 Orgullo march started at Plaza del Mercado and ended cat Concha del Espolón.  The Orgullo festitivities included a concert following the march. [41]

2019 was the first year that Gylda and Marea Arcoiris that jointly organized Orgullo festivities in Logroño, with a goal trying to stop “the advancement of the extreme right.” and a motto of “La igualdad y los derechos de las personas LGTBi”. Logroño was also one of number cities that unofficially followed the FELGTB chosen slogan of ‘Mayores Sin Armarios: ¡Historia, Lucha y Memoria!’ for Orgullo 2019. Orgullo protests and celebrations honored the fiftieth anniversary of the Stonewall riots.  Secretary Jesús Cárcamo said of the need for the march, “The moment we stop living as heterosexuals there is a minority sector that does not accept it” and that attacks against homosexuals and transexual people were growing in the region in parallel to their increased visibility. During the act, a gay man from Logroño gave testimony about the repression he faced in the past in both La Rioja and Madrid for being a homosexual. GYLDA requested that Partido Popular and Ciudadanos not participate in Logroño’s 28 June Orgullo march. [42]

The rainbow flag flew from the town hall of Logroño from 28 June to 6 July 2019 in honor of Orgullo. The decision to do so was made by the new local government comprised of members of PSOE, UP and PR+. Los Niños son Intocables denounced the flying of the rainbow flag at the town hall on 26 June 2019 as part of the city’s Orgullo celebrations. They also announced that they would officially support Orgullo activities taking place on 29 June in Logroño that year. The announcement about doing this was made by former GYLDA president and current and Plenary President Francisco Javier Pérez. Perez and Councilor for the Mayor’s Office, Equality and Coexistence Eva Tobías were the ones who did the ceremony to officially hang the flag from the town hall’s balcony. In addition to these activities, the town hall’s Youth Service on sexual diversity prepared a video about Orgullo for distribution across municipal social media networks.[43]

GYLDA, in charge of organizing Orgullo in Logroño in 2020, dedicated it specifically to giving additional attention to making transwomen more visibility as part of the collective. The motto for Orgullo 2020 was “Sororidad y feminismo para TRANSformar. ¡Mujeres lesbianas, trans y bisexuales en acción! Por las más vulnerables”, and was advanced nationally by FELGTB and COGAM.  The organizer said that trans, lesbian and bisexual women all suffered double discrimination and were particularly hard hit by covid because of their vulnerable economic position. Lesbians were otherwise not mentioned. The 2020 Logroño Orgullo concentration had the motto of Orgullo de ser mujeres, lesbianas, trans, bisexuales. Orgullo 2020 Logroño included a speech on the need for trans-inclusive feminism, sisterhood and resilience. The speech did not mention lesbians much, and there was no lesbian flag held by the mostly male organizers, but they did have a trans flag to accompany the giant rainbow flag.  Events took place on 3 July 2020 at sede CCOO Logroño on Av. Pío XII, 33. Members of the La Rioja LGTB community were encouraged to participate in the virtual festivities organized in Madrid. For 2020 Orgullo celebrations in Logroño, rainbow flags and facemasks were distributed by the townhall at El Submarino on the Friday before the main festivities. [44]

The Asociación Los Niños son Intocables denounced the Gobierno de la Rioja and the town hall of Logroño on 25 June 2020 for flying the rainbow flag during Orgullo on their building. The government tried to get around that by withdrawing the rainbow flag and hanging it instead at the office of the Presidencia de la Comunidad Autónoma.

GYLDA member Leire López-Davalillo read the Orgullo manifesto at the town hall in 2020. Logroño Mayor Pablo Hermoso de Mendoza attended the event along with President of the Government of La Rioja Concha Andreu. During the event, Andreu made comments about Asociación Los Niños son Intocables, characterizing them as a hate group and saying of their efforts to remove the rainbow flag, “I hope they carryout [their threat] and give me the satisfaction of defending before the judge the Spain I believe in and the pride I feel for my community.” Andreu went on to say, “I will always defend the rights and freedoms of all because it is the right path. Making all people happy being themselves enriches us all”.[45]

GYLDA organized Orgullo once again in Logroño in 2021, with the 26 June march having the motto, “Human Rights are not negotiated, they are legislated. Comprehensive Trans Law: Now!”.  The reading and promoting of the manifesto was done by GYLDA in collaboration with Chrysallis.  Attendees were asked to maintain a safe distance, wear a mask and wash their hands regularly. Marea Arcoíris organized their own Orgullo celebrations that took place in Logroño in the same time period. The Logroño 2021 Orgullo programming did not have any lesbian specific content. It had two programs specifically about gay men, one about trans and one about queer. The rest was inclusive of the whole alphabet. The speech by President Concha Andreu in honor of Orgullo on 28 June 2021 mentioned lesbians, saying, “In order for lesbian or bisexual women to be able to register the birth of their babies in the Civil Registry, they must necessarily marry, unlike heterosexual families…” as an example of the issues faced by lesbians in the region. It was her only lesbian specific mention in the speech.[46]

The Asociación Los Niños son Intocables denounced the town hall of Calahorra, Logroño and the Gobierno de La Rioja for hanging the rainbow flag on 25 June 2021 in celebration of Orgullo, citing ley 39/1981 which prohibited the flying from government building of any unofficial flags. Los Niños son Intocables complained about the Orgullo campaign of the town hall of Logroño in June 2021 in support of LGTB people on social media and elsewhere for teaching children that being a homosexual is okay. They used the Christian Bible as part of their denouncing of these efforts. The town hall used electronic billboards on bus stops and elsewhere to promote Pride. In one of the biggest Logroño Facebook groups, there were a lot of comments on a post about Orgullo 2021 Logroño that complained about the event existing, saying it was not needed and that the community should work to earn respect before having such an event. Gays and lesbians were accused of being dirty and filthy, and that Orgullo made gays and lesbians look overrepresented than their actual representation in Spanish society.

Marea Arcoíris announced in May 2022 that they would not be participating in or running their own Pride celebrations that year.  Their decision was made because they wanted to protest the  “erratic LGTBI policy of the Government of La Rioja” and “lack of will to promote the LGTBI Law, the opening of the LGTBI Advisory Center or the carrying out of campaigns against bullying”. Prior to their decision to pull out from organizing their own events, they had been given a subsidy of €3000 from the regional government to support their Pride events, the first time in the organization’s history that they had been given such a subsidy for Pride.[47]


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rioja2. (2008, June 26). Suspendido el ciclo de cine. rioja2. Retrieved from https://www.rioja2.com/n-28331-3-Suspendido_ciclo_cine/

rioja2. (2008, June 26). Un toque musical. rioja2. Retrieved from https://www.rioja2.com/n-28322-3-toque_musical/

rioja2. (2009, June 24). En un país multicolor. rioja2. Retrieved from https://www.rioja2.com/n-44692-2-pais_multicolor/

rioja2. (2016, June 27). Logroño iza la bandera arcoiris en el Día del Orgullo. rioja2. Retrieved from https://www.rioja2.com/n-105281-3-logrono-iza-la-bandera-arcoiris-en-el-dia-del-orgullo/

rioja2. (2018, May 10). Se busca tractor para un orgullo LGTBI+ más rural que nunca. rioja2.

rioja2. (2018, June 23). Una manifestación para visibilizar los problemas del colectivo LGTBI+ en zonas rurales. rioja2. Retrieved from https://www.rioja2.com/n-121449-2-una-manifestacion-para-visibilizar-los-problemas-del-colectivo-lgtbi-en-zonas-rurales-/

Rioja2. (2021, June 18). La manifestación de Gylda del Orgullo será el sábado 26 de junio. rioja2. Retrieved from https://www.rioja2.com/n-153805-2-la-manifestacion-de-gylda-del-orgullo-sera-el-sabado-26-de-junio/

Val Cubero, A. (2003). La mujer logroñesa a través de la imagen en el siglo XX. Logroño: Gobierno de La Rioja, Instituto de Estudios Riojanos.

Varela, J., Parra Contreras, P., & Val Cubero, A. (2016). Memorias para hacer camino. Madrid: Ediciones Morata, S.L.,.

[1] (Moreno Galilea, 2018; Val Cubero, 2003; Carretero, 2014)

[2] (Moreno Galilea, 2018; Val Cubero, 2003)

[3] (Villar Sáenz, June 2008; Varela, Parra Contreras, & Val Cubero, 2016)

[4] (Moreno Galilea, 2018; Val Cubero, 2003)

[5] (Calvo Borobia, 2010; Díaz P. , 2018)

[6] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, Conciencia Social y política de las mujeres que aman a mujeres en la transición al siglo XXI en La Rioja, 2019)

[7] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, Conciencia Social y política de las mujeres que aman a mujeres en la transición al siglo XXI en La Rioja, 2019; La Noticia, 2008; Moreno, La Rioja no es lugar para salir del armario, 2012; Ayuntamiento de Logroño, 2012)

[8] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, 2019; rioja2, 2008)

[9] (Caro, 2007)

[10] (rioja2, 2008)

[11] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, 2019; Moreno, 2012)

[12] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, 2019)

[13] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, 2019)

[14] (rioja2, 2008)

[15] (La Noticia, 2008)

[16] Some sources say this was the second year in a row where the townhall had done that while others said 2008 was the first year this was done.

[17] (rioja2, 2008)

[18] (rioja2, 2008)

[19] (rioja2, 2009)

[20] (rioja2, 2009)

[21] (Europa Press, 2011)

[22] (Moreno, 2012)

[23] (Europa Press, 2012; Ayuntamiento de Logroño, 2012)

[24] (CNT Logroño, 2012)

[25] (Europa Press, 2015)

[26] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, 2019)

[27] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, 2019)

[28] (Europa Press, 2015; Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, 2019)

[29] (EFE, 2015)

[30] (Europa Press, 2015)

[31] (nuevecuatrouno, 2015)

[32] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, 2019; Europa Press, 2016; rioja2, 2016)

[33] (rioja2, 2018; Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, 2019)

[34] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, 2019; Europa Press, 2016; rioja2, 2018)

[35] (rioja2, 2018)

[36] (Canas & Garcia, 2017)

[37] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, 2019)

[38] (nuevecuatrouno, 2017)

[39] (rioja2, 2018)

[40] (rioja2, 2018; Biblioteca de la Universidad de La Rioja, 2018)

[41] (Europa Press, 2019)

[42] (Europa Press, 2019; Nevot, 2019)

[43] (Campos, 2019)

[44] (Europa Press, 2020)

[45] (Europa Press, 2020)

[46] (nuevecuatrouno, 2021; Rioja2, 2021; Marea Arcoíris, 2021)

[47] (nuevecuatrouno, 2022)

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