Logroño

Alfaro, Anguiano, Arnedo, Calahorra, Cervera, Ezcaray, Haro, Logroño, Nájera, Camero Nuevo, Santo Domingo de la Calzada, Camero Viejo

Logroño is the capital and largest city of the region of La Rioja with a population of around 150,250 residents.  The origins of the city date back to that of Celtiberians, with additional settlement taking place with the founding of Roman Vareia, aided by its placement on the Río Ebro.  The city was an important one in the Middle Ahes, helped by its location on the Camino de Santiago and because of its location near the borders of Castile, Navarra and Aragon. It would gain some fame as being a city attacked by El Cid Campeador.  Logroño gained the title of city in 1431. Around twenty years later, its official population was 717 people.  A seat of the Inquisition Court was convened there in 1570.  The city officially became a provincial capital in 1822, which was annulled in 1823 and then reinstated in 1833.  Logroño went to the side of Franco very early in the Spanish Civil War, and there was no major fighting in or near the city. The city’s tobacco factory closed in 1978. In 1982, the region was renamed from the province of Logroño to the Autonomous Community of La Rioja.  Since the Democratic transition period, the local townhall has regularly changed hands between PSOE and Partido Popular.

History

The Tribunal de la Inquisición de Logroño was originally covered by the bishoprics of Osma and Calahorra, with their headquarters in Calahorra from 1498 until 1512, when the court was added to the one in Navarra. It returned the town in 1521 and remained there until 1570 when it moved to Logroño. The jurisdiction of the court covered the entire kingdom of Navarra, the bishopric of Calahorra, the province of Guipúzcoa and the lordship of Vizcaya. It continued until its suppression in 1834.[1] It was never one of the biggest Inquisition tribunals and it is unclear if any female sodomites were charged by it in Logroño.

Lola Rodríguez Aragón was a Spanish soprano singer, and partner of portrait painter Marisa Roesset Velasco who was born in Logorño on 29 September 1910. The singer and painter was the oldest of eight children.

Logroño had a population of 100,169 in 1975, the first time the city’s population reached over 100,000. Despite this, the region was still primarily rural with the population of the then Provincia de Logroño having 242,473 people. Most of the people moving to Logroño were part of a wider rural exodus to big cities.[2]

Asociación de Mujeres Juristas was founded in Logroño in 1971 and was one of the first feminist organizations founded in the city. [3] Asociación de Mujeres Juristas was founded as a clandestine organization. They did not become visible in broader La Rioja society until after Franco’s death. [4] Two years later in 1973, Asociación de Mujeres separadas legalmente became the second feminist organization founded in Logroño. Then in 1974, Movimiento Democrático de la Mujer-Movimiento de Liberación de la Mujer was founded. The fourth major feminist organization in this period to be founded was Seminario Colectivo Feminista, founded in 1975. The last on the scene was Asociación Feminista de La Rioja, founded in 1979. None of these groups were explicitly about lesbians, but their feminist nature and lack of connection for most lesbian women to the nascent Spanish homosexual rights movement means that lesbians in La Rioja likely would have been attracted to these organizations based on historical patterns. [5]

The Primeras Jornadas Nacionales por la Liberación de la Mujer took place between 6 and 8 December 1975 in Madrid at Colegio Montpellier, with around 500 women participating. The event was constituted in 1974 by the Secretariado de Organizaciones No Gubernamentales, who held meetings and coordinated activities in different parts of Spain including in Barcelona, ​​Valencia, Santander, Malaga, Alicante and Valladolid. Ahead of the December 1975 event, the held a smaller one in Madrid, attended by 80 women from cities and regions that included Albacete, Alicante, Barcelona, ​​Galicia, Logroño, Madrid, Málaga, Oviedo, Santander, Seville, Valencia and Valladolid. These meetings would give rise to the feminist movement in the post-Franco period and be a launching point from which some early lesbian activists would emerge.[6]

Asociación Feminista de La Rioja was based in Logroño in late 1970s and early 1980s. It is likely the group attracted lesbian members, even if those members were heavily closeted. Lesbianism as a topic, based on the experiences of lesbians elsewhere, likely would rarely have come up in meetings or in discussions among other members. The general political goals of feminist groups during the transition would have been in support of legal equality, making the Spanish Constitution feminist, repeal of certain laws, and making divorce, contraceptives and abortion legal. [7]

Asociación Feminista de La Rioja (AFR) was linked to left-wing political parts and Colegio Universitario de Logroño (CULO). It was at CULO that AFR and Asociación de Amigos de La Rioja would celebrate the Primeras Jornadas de la Mujer Riojana in February 1979. One of the group’s first demands was that women manage Centros de Información Sexual for other women. This interest in female sexuality led AFR and Empar Pineda to hosting the Primeras Jornadas Feministas sobre la sexualidad on 5 May 1981. Their other major focus was on abortion rights, especially as they were disappointed in PSOE’s position not being very progressive. They used a number of slogans in support of abortion rights including, “Sexuality is not motherhood”, “If the Pope got pregnant, abortion would be sacred”.[8]

Colectivo de Feministas Lesbianas was expanding across Spain in the period between 1980 to 1985 after having its first branch founded in Madrid in 1980. Among the cities to get a branch in this period was Logroño, with Colectivo de Feministas Lesbianas de La Rioja being founded in 1985. [9] Colectivo de Feministas Lesbianas de La Rioja produced a magazine called Bailas.[10]

Iberpop was held in Logroño in 1984. One of the posters promoting the event featured an opposite-sex couple kissing. The woman had short hair and was not wearing earrings. The president of the Tribunal Tutelar de Menores filed a complaint, saying the poster promoted homosexuality. Ultimately, the court refused to process the complaint but the fact that a complaint had been filed received national attracted national attention. The complaint highlighted the homophobic atmosphere in the city at the time.[11]

The Asociaion Feminista de La Rioja convened a manifestacion against rape against women on 1 December 1985 at Glorieta del Doctor Zubía. They were supported by CRIPAZ, ERA-AT, M.C.R., M.O.C., J.O.C., C.I.O., Asociación Gitano, A.P.I.R., Grupo de Homosexuales y Lesbianas, ACESUR and EXODO. Marchers urged women to denounce their attackers and to not be silent in the face of such abuse.[12]

Asociaion Feminista de La Rioja addressed issues of female sexuality, but rarely addressed the topic of lesbianism very openly and rarely with pictures. One exception to this was in June 1987, in honor of Orgullo, when they held a talk titled, “Lesbianas ¿por qué no?” at Sala de Cultura Gonzalo de Berceo. The 25 June 1987 talk featured a speaker from the Colectivo de Lesbianas Feminists de Madrid. The poster for the event featured two naked women embracing.[13]

Despite the shift towards LGBT organizations by a number of lesbians, some lesbian feminist groups and lesbian feminist magazines continued to hold on in Spain with the notable exception of the Basque Country where all lesbian feminist groups folded. These included the lesbian feminist collective of Asturias Desde el Silencio, Barcelona Grup de Lesbianes which became Tribades, CRECUL and Lesbianas Sin Duda in Madrid, the La Rioja lesbian feminist collective Bailas, and the Bollus Vivendi fanzine.

The 1997 Jornadas de Lesbianas Feministas in Bilbao had lesbian feminist participants from Córdoba, Bilbao, Oviedo, Gijón, Torrelavega, Salamanca, Santiago de Compostela, Bilbao, San Sebastián, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Logroño, Pamplona, Madrid, Murcia, Valencia and Barcelona.

Starting in the late 1990s, the Logroño newspaper La Rioja had advertisements for discrete French and Greek speaking lesbian prostitutes who also offered golden showers. Advertisements for lesbian prostitutes continued in the into the paper until at the mid-2010s. In later advertisements starting in the mid-2000s, lesbians prostitution services were offered alongside transvestite prostitution services.

By September 2005, four same-sex couples had gone to the town hall to start the paperwork to get married, though none had actually gotten married by that point. [14] By the end of the year, four same-sex weddings took place in the city. Seven of the first twenty same-sex marriages in the region, all occurring before March 2007, took place in Logroño. The first took place on 30 September 2005, and was the second to take place in La Rioja. The wedding occurred at the town hall.[15]

By 2006, AIDS testing was available on a walk-in basis at the hospital in Logroño.[16] GYLDA had an information table in November 2006 in Gota de Leche about AIDS and HIV. It was unclear if anything was lesbian specific.[17]

The ayuntamiento de Logroño budgeted €18225 in 2009 for programming for young people dealing with discrimination. From this funding effort, the Centro Arco Iris would be created. Its staff eventually included psychologist Miguel Ferreras. Over time, the quality of the programming offered by the center would improve greatly. [18]

. Gays and lesbians in Mirando de Ebro often turned to Gehitu in San Sebastián and GYLDA from Logroño for support in the late 2000s and early 2010s. [19] When gays and lesbians in Arnedo wanted to get away and get more social opportunities in 2009, they often headed to Calahorra or Logroño. For young gays and lesbians without a car, this made life very difficult as there were no gay bars or other places where they could be out without fear.

The GYLDA organized I Jornadas de Educación en Diversidad Afectivo-Sexual were held at the Universidad de La Rioja in March 2010. Titles for sessions included “The social construction of sexuality from homoeroticism to queer theory”, “Heteronormativity in the educational system”, “Education in Diversity in the family environment”, “The challenges and proposals to educate in affective-sexual diversity in the classroom” and, “the role of the figure of the Defensor del Pueblo”. None were lesbian specific, and GYLDA was very gay male dominated at that time.[20] Esther Nolla and Catalina Pastor, from Asociación de Madres y Padres de Gays y Lesbianas de Barcelona, organized the conference ‘Education in diversity in the family environment’ which took place during the same weekend and was part of the same conference cycle.[21]

Asociación de madres y padres de lesbianas, gays, transexuales y bisexuales (AMGYL) was around in 2012, founded by three mothers who viewed themselves as looking after the fifty members of GYLDA. The group met at the house of Marisa Fernández in the barrio of Yagüe during that period. The other members of the group included Violeta Puerta and Roberto Carreras. The group believed it was important for parents to come out of the closet as having gay and lesbian children to increase acceptance for gays and lesbians in La Rioja. Questions members of the group often got from others in their community included if their child was happy if homosexuality was a disease, if it is difficult for their child to walk hand-in-hand in Logroño and is it hard for the parents considering they themselves are heterosexual.[22]

While Logroño looked like a city in the early 2010s, it functioned like a town with everyone knowing everyone else. At the same time, it was also surrounded by other small towns. With Partido Popular in control of the region, many homosexuals from Logroño emigrated to other parts of Spain that were more tolerant of homosexuals.[23]

In the mid- and late 2010s, lesbians who were publicly visible in the city by holding hands when out with their partners would often get dirty looks from people.[24] In the mid-2010s, Marina Blanco was kissing her girlfriend goodbye on the street when an older woman approached them and told them to stop putting on a show and stop kissing, saying they had no shame. [25]

The VI Jornadas sobre Diversidad Afectivo-Sexual y de Género ‘Mujeres que aman a mujeres’ were held on 24 March 2015 at the Sala de Grados del Edificio Quintiliano de la Universidad de La Rioja. It was dedicated to women who love women, and was in its sixth edition. The first session was a round table discussion titled “Evolution and incorporation of lesbian women in the patriarchal society”. The second session was a screening of the 2015 Spanish and French lesbian documentary Las ventanas abiertas, followed by a discussion led by director Michèle Massé and film subject Boti G. Rodrigo. The conference was organized by Grupo ‘Igualdad y Género’ , FELGTBm GYLDA and Aldarte. An exhibition was also organized by the Bilbao based group Aldarte titled “In transit: between secrecy and visibility 1977-2007” that lasted from 19 to 26 March 2015 at Edificio Quintiliano.[26]

In September 2015, there were five lesbians from La Rioja with listings on the dating site Pink Cupid. Four were from Logroño, aged 24 32, 42 and 45.

Podemos La Rioja mentioned Lesbian Visibility Day on their Twitter account on 26 April 2016, using the hashtag #DiaVisibilidadLesbica.  Marea Arcoíris Rioja mentioned Lesbian Visibility Day on their Twitter account on 26 April 2017, using the hashtag #DiaVisibilidadLesbica. Cambia Logroño mentioned Lesbian Visibility Day on their Twitter account on 26 April 2018, using the hashtag #DiaVisibilidadLesbica. Cambia Logroño celebrated Lesbian Visibility Day in 2018.[27]

Two members of Marea Arco Iris filed a complaint at the Jefatura Superior de la Policía Nacional against Mujeres en Rebeldía in September 2016, alleging several women uttered homophobic slurs at the during the Fiestas de la Vendimia at the Punto Feminista that took place in Plaza Amós Salvador. The group rejected the complaint, saying the slurs were actually uttered by members of the local police who were in the same space at the time. Mujeres en Rebeldía said it was a structural problem of the police and local town hall in refusing to assess structural and systemic problems of heteropatriarchy inside their organizations.

Marina Blanco, at the age of 21, became a councilor for Cambia Logroño in the Logroño townhall in November 2017 replacing Paz Manso de Zúñiga who resigned. Blanco was originally number eight on the party’s list, but the candidates ahead of her to replace Manso de Súñiga resigned and the group decided to name Marina Blanca. When she was sworn in in December 2017, she promised to work for “For social justice, equality and sustainability”. [28]

In 2017, the ayuntamiento de Logroño and GYLDA had a ceremony where the rainbow flag was presented and the ayuntamiento announced its support, along with declaring the municipal government as a place for diversity. Of the nine people photographed with the flag, only three were women of which one was PSOE councilor Beatriz Arraiz Nalda who was in the center while the other two women appeared in the far left of the image. [29]

The Universidad de La Rijoa, along with Unidad de Igualdad de Género y el Grupo de Investigación ‘Igualdad y Género’, GYLDA and FELGTB, organized the March 2018 Jornadas sobre Diversidad Afectivo-Sexual y de Género ‘Lxs Otrxs’. It was the ninth edition of the event, with that year’s focus on historical leaders in the LGTBI+ movement, with a goal of writing a better history of the homosexual rights movement in Spain and the history of the broader LGTBI+ movement in Spain. There was nothing on the program specific to lesbians.[30]

On 25 April 2018 and in honor of Lesbian Visibility Day, Cambia Logroño councilor Marina Blanco proposed to the town hall “to promote policies for gender equality and against sexist violence that make visible and address the reality of lesbian women and their specific problems.” She was accompanied by Marea Arcoíris La Rioja President Deborah Pimentel. Her proposal included adding a “perspective of sexual diversity and gender identity in municipal youth and elderly policies” despite gender identity not being related to sexual orientation. Her proposal also said it was of vital importance that the Consejería de Educación and the Ministerio de Educación “approve and develop, in collaboration with school councils, protocols to prevent and eradicate cases of bullying suffered by lesbian girls and adolescents because of their sexual orientation.” Further, her proposal called for “guarantee lesbian women quality health care, free of prejudice and adapted to their needs and demands”. It also asked that legislation be approved that would make “discrimination and violence based on sexual orientation as a hate crime.” [31]

The president of Marea Arcoíris was out with her girlfriend, holding hands, in March 2018 on Gran Vía when a man approached the couple, and rebuked and insulted them. [32]

In early April 2018, two women were assaulted in Logroño because of their sexual orientation near Plaza del Mercado and Calle de Herrerías. A young man spat on them, yelled verbal abuse at them and pushed them. The phrases yelled at them included, “look at these shitty dykes” and “let’s put on [the song] The Face to the Sun so they can learn”.[33] When he finally left them, he did so in a car that loudly played the Francoist song, “Cara al Sol.” It was the sixth reported homophobic incident that year in Logroño and the second against lesbians. The women reported the incident to the Policia Nacional. [34]

Marea Arcoíris requested that the Government of La Rioja include the LGTBI+ curriculum in September 2018 in order to combat LGTBIphobia that was occurring in school classrooms.

Los Niños son Intocables held a protest at the Plaza del Ayuntamiento de Logroño on 29 December 2018 to condemn the Gobierno de La Rioja for not giving parents a choice for their students to receive sexual education talks and workshops in school that covered topics like safe sex and sexual orientation.

Mujeres en rebeldía gathered on 8 March 2019 at the Concatedral Santa María la Redonda for the International Women’s Labor Day protest. They had a banner they put across the facade of the building that read, “Os beberéis la sangre de nuestros abortos” which means “You will drink the blood of our abortions.” It was later removed at the same time that the manifestation called by UGT, CCOO, USO and STE-Rioja started at the plaza del Mercado.

The X Jornadas sobre Diversidad Afectivo-Sexual y de Género abordan took place at the Universidad de La Rioja from 25 to 27 March 2019. The theme was intersexuality and the intersex condition. Unlike other editions, lesbians were not referenced or discussed.[35]

26 April 2019 was the first ever march for lesbian visibility in the region’s history.[36]

In April 2019, GYLDA called for citizens of La Rioja to protest Hazte Oír’s bus visit to Logroño, claiming the bus visiting was an incitement and provocation against the LGTBI+ community in the city.[37]

On 2 February 2019, Los Niños son Intocables held a demonstration at the offices of the Gobierno de la Rioja to protest the inclusion of sexual education of children in schools without parental consent, where topics of sexual education included information on sexual orientation, gender identity and safe sex practices. They encouraged parents of Muslim children to attend their protest. The protest took place in Plaza del Ayuntamiento de Logroño.

A lesbian couple in Logroño started the process of preparing for the birth of their child in 2019 by getting all the paperwork sorted to avoid problems. Despite being married, they were asked to deal with the birth registration at the Registro Civil and not the hospital, and were asked to provide documentation regarding how the child was conceived. The problems went on for months before they were resolved.[38]

Logroño born Madrid Vox Congreso de Diputados member Alicia Rubio attended a Vox event in Madrid in November 2019. Phrases attributed to her at the event by nuevecuatrouno included, “Feminism no longer defends women, only lesbians,” “Feminism has lost its way since it began to hate men,” and “Current feminism hates men. It no longer seeks for women to be like men, but to eliminate them.”[39]

Asociaicón Los Niños son Intocables filed a lawsuit in 2020 against Servicio Riojano de la Sexualidad (SERISE) and their director in order to try to prevent sex education, along with information about sexual orientation and gender identity, from being taught in public schools, claiming the Parental PIN law was not followed.[40]

Coordinadora del 8-M is the organizer of the International Women’s Labor Day March in Logroño. On 6 March 2020, ahead of their march in discussions with the media, organization representative María Pérez Fajardo said, “We come back because they don’t want us to go out on the street or dance; we come back because they don’t want us to be seen, they don’t want us to be heard, because they want us to shut up and not make noise; we return because the street, the public and the visible is also ours; we return because patriarchy is fought with feminism; we come back because twenty-year-old boys think they can do whatever they want with a fifteen-year-old girl and then go home and play Parcheesi; because of the wage gap; by rationalized women, lesbians, migrants, with functional diversity…”. The march started on 8 March 2020 at the fuente de las ‘Espaldas Mojadas’. It was preceded by an opportunity for marchers to make their own posters at colegio Madre de Dios earlier in the day.[41]

On 3 May 2021, Hospital San Pedro refused to register Iris, the daughter of a lesbian couple named Irene and Isabel. They were told that they needed to go to the Registro Civil to register her birth. This was despite the fact that the couple are married, had Iris’s birth certificate and their family book. The Gobierno de La Rioja said after the incident that it was an error that would not be repeated. [42]

The XI Jornadas sobre Diversidad Afectivo Sexual y de Género ‘Diversidad y Disidencia’ de la Universidad de La Rioja took place on 13 September 2021, with the directora general of the Diversidad Sexual y Derechos LGTBI of the Ministerio de Igualdad Boti García Rodrigo inagurating the event. The conference took place at the Aula Magna in Edificio Quintiliano and in the Salón de Actos in Edificio Filologías. There was no lesbian specific programming at the conference.[43]

In April 2022, there were nine Asian and twenty-five teen lesbians in Spain listed on the online dating site, Pink Cupid. One of the teenagers and one of the Asians was from Logroño, aged 19.

xaffair.net is a relationship site for people looking to cheat founded in 2019 that includes a section for gays and lesbians. The site has a history of putting up fake profiles which message people, with the goal of encouraging people to buy their premium service. It is unclear how often this happens in Spain or with lesbian members. There was only one lesbian from Logroño in May 2022, and that was a 25-year-old.

There were eighteen rooms for rent on Idealista in April 2022 that was listed as being LGTB friendly. Seven of these were with female only roommates. This accounted for twenty of the total LGTB friendly rooms for rent in all of La Rioja.

Marea Arcoíris organized a 26 April 2022 Día de la Visibilidad Lésbica protest at Plaza del Mercado with the motto “Aquí estamos las lesbianas”. The Madrid group Batucada que Entiende had a presence at the event. Among their demands were that women who like women stop being treated like a product for male heterosexual consumption.[44]

Women

Marina Blanco is an activist and politician from Logroño. Blanco first came out of the closet with her friends, who accepted her for who she was. While she had some trepidation about coming out to her parents, they were also accepting when she did. Despite this, she often faced discrimination when out in the city. She became a councilor for Cambia Logroño by 2018, at the age of 22 and proposed legislation to make lesbians more visible in the city and to work towards insuring better healthcare for lesbians.

Déborah Pimentel is an LGTB activist who has served as the president of Marea Acoíris de La Rioja.

Pimentel is gitano from Logroño and was born in 1990. She worked as a delivery person and has been married, with her grandmother attending the wedding. During the wedding, she ripped off her shawl instead of her shirt as a nod to her culture. In her life, she faced more discrimination for being Roma than for being a woman or a homosexual. Despite the stigma faced by homosexuals in the Roma community, her parents were accepting of her sexual orientation in part because the stigma was always worse for gay men.

Lola Rodríguez Aragón was a Spanish soprano singer and music businesswoman and educator. She was also the partner of portrait painter Marisa Roesset Velasco. The couple are interred together at Cementerio de San Isidro in the family location for Rodríguez Aragón. They were together from 1938 to Roesset Velasco’s death in 1976.

Rodríguez was born on 29 September 1910 in Logroño, the oldest of eight children. The family moved to Cádiz in 1918, a move that started Rodríguez’s singing career as it is where she first began to study music theory and the piano at Academia Santa Cecilia de Cádiz. She had her first solo as a member of academy’s choir. Near the end of 1921, she moved with her family to Zaragoza, where she faced the loss of her brother Pepe in June 1922 and her cousin Juan a few months later. The family moved again in autumn 1925 to A Coruña and Rodríguez started training with Bibiana Pérez and soon had her first public concert at Teatro Rosalía de Castro. The family made its final move to Madrid in September 1928 where Rodríguez continued her singing studies. She met a number of people who assisted her singing career including Joaquín Turina. Rodríguez spent a few winters in Paris, studying singing, in 1934 and 1935. She also spent time in Bavaria. In the summer 1938, the singer met Marisa Roësset Velasco in A Coruña at the home of painter Álvarez de Sotomayor. The two would soon move in together in Madrid. In October 1939, with the Civil War all but formally over, Rodríguez took a teaching position at the Real Conservatorio de Música. She worked in Lisbon in the 1940s, and in Madrid at the Teatro María Guerrero where she created its first official opera season. She would repeat the opera season feat a second time at the Teatro Albéniz in the following year, in 1946. She would organize more opera seasons at theaters in Madrid. On 28 June 1953, Lola Rodríguez Aragón returned to the stage for the first time following the death of her father on 2 May 1953 as part of the Second International Music Festival of Granada that took place at the Palacio de Carlos V. It was her last public performance in Spain. In the fall of 1958, Lola Rodríguez Aragón began two seasons in charge of Teatro de La Zarzuela’s theater company, the first woman to run the theater. Despite initial financial losses, she had a hugely successful run as its leader. She continued to organize festivals, opera seasons and win awards in the ensuing decades inside and outside Spain. The singer went on to found the Escuela Super de Canto de Madrid. Rodríguez Aragón died in the early morning Clínica Universidad de Navarra on 30 April 1984. Her body was taken to the Escuela Superior de Canto de Madrid where the teachers’ room was made into a makeshift chapel for visitation by the public, which included prominent politicians of the day as well as condolences from the King of Spain being telegrammed to her family.

GYLDA

GYLDA was founded on 13 December 1995 by Virginia, Cristina, Emilio and José Ubis among others. The founders and the most active early members were primarily lesbians who had already known each other through their social group. Presidents of GYLDA from its founding until 2012 included Francisco J. Pérez, Jesús Cárcamo, María Fajardo, Chelo Rabanal, Teresa Ayuso, Jesús Palacios, Ángel Torres, Bruno Gamboa, José Ubis, and Virginia Fuertes. The name of the group was a reference to the 1946 film Gilda and because it can be used to mean, “Gays y Lesbianas De Aquí”.[45] Early on, the group focused on prioritizing the individual by offering advice and help. Visibility and vindication of rights was secondary, even if the group said they were fully committed to HIV / AIDS and general STD prevention work. [46] Soon after being founded, the group started organizing local Orgullo events, and would do so for over the next two decades with assistance from locals and popular meeting places.  This tied in with one of their early priorities of trying to make the LGTB community in the region more visible and to fight for LGTB rights. At the same time, they also were committed to preventing the spread of HIV / AIDS and STDs more generally.  [47] By 2010, the remaining activists in GYLDA were primarily Francisco Pérez Diego, Roberto Carreras, Mónica Vitoria, Javi Valverde and José Sáenz.[48] GYLDA officially ceased activity in July 2012, with its militants remaining slightly active before reappearing in 2016 with the same name and same demands. The association had a lot of early ties to the feminism association. Little by little, they moved away from that space as both groups realized they needed their own identities and had their own unique demands. When the organization was founded, the organization did alternating leadership of woman, man, woman, man, with seven women and six men in their first thirteen leaders. One of the group’s early focuses was on marriage equality. After that happened, the group moved on to a larger battle fighting homophobia.  [49]

Unusual for the time, the organization had a website by 1997. It was located at http://www.arrakis.es/~tatxo . GYLDA collaborated with the Asexórate program in 1997 and 1998. They assumed full responsibility of the project, financed by the Logroño town hall, until 2001.

GYLDA almost disappeared in 1999, when around thirty activists came to an agreement to try to rejuvenate the organization.[50] GYLDA joined FELGT in 2001. Around 2001, the organization had 53 members of which 44 were women and nine were men. [51] The major political activities from 1999 to 2005 were trying to pass a domestic partnership law in La Rioja and to assist in the national battle for same-sex marriage. Activists involved in this fight included Mónica Dueñas, Gema, Jesús Cárcamo, Ángel Torres, Sergio Iñiguez, Roberto Carreras, Marga, Belén, Teresa, María and José Sáenz. [52] These activities were in line with those being pushed nationally by FELGT.

The influence of the organization’s lesbians could be seen in their feminist related activities. GYLDA published a statement on 8 March 2003 in honor of International Women’s Labor Day in the newspaper La Rioja that read in part, “With this title, it is impossible not to speak of double discrimination! As women we join the cry of other women, our partners. We denounce the gender violence and labor inequality that is being felt in Spain. We denounce the violation of human rights suffered by women in other parts of the world.”, “As lesbian women, WE DEMAND this heterosexist society to evolve, to grow, to transform, to UNDERSTAND that love between women is not a crime or an aberration, but rather a different way of living sexuality and life. As lesbian women we demand legal equality, where we can get married, where we can adopt, where we can have children together.”[53]

There was a man in GYLDA who wanted a leading role in the organization, who was supported by the three other men. At the same time around the mid-2000s, there were some personal conflicts between women in the group, which led to a falling out among the female members of the group because of the power distribution that had nothing to do with gender related disputes. Many of these women eventually left, and would remain outside the activist community for many years. [54]

In 2004, GLYDA asked the La Rioja Prosecutor’s Office to take action against Opus Dei and Presbyterial Council of the Diocese of Calahorra-La Calzada-Logroño, member Carlos Moreda de Lecesa for his statements in the Diario de La Rioja on 24 July 2004 that were “denigrating example of public incitement to hatred and discrimination against a whole group of people.” Part of Moreda’s article said, homosexuality was caused by “some anomaly caused by a difficult affective relationship with the father of the same sex.” and that homosexual practices “have always been considered disordered.”[55]

After marriage equality was achieved, GYLDA turned its focus to combatting homophobia more generally.[56] GYLDA advocated for the recognition of lesbian and transexual women visibility in 2008. They said this was important because both groups feared rejection from family and employers. [57] GYLDA launched a campaign in schools and university to combat LGTBfobia from 12 to 18 May 2008 to coincide with 17 May’s Día contra la Homofobia, Transfobia y Bisfobia. They encouraged teachers to use time to reflect on discrimination against the LGTB community, and provided a copy of a manifesto teachers could read to students.[58]

Every year from at least 2005 to 2008, GYLDA held a spring gathering and the autumn gathering at a hostel in the city, needing a larger space since the event attracted participants from other parts of Spain. People from Barcelona, Catalonia, Levante, Madrid and Palencia would attend these twice yearly events, having made friends or acquaintances with members of the group and using that as an excuse to visit Logroño and get together with others like themselves. The gatherings started on a Friday night with dinner and then continued until Sunday where they concluded with lunch. The 2008 spring gathering took place from 18 to 20 April at Albergue de Soto de Cameros. [59]

In 2006, the government of Logroño, under Articulo 37 del reglamento Orgánico de Participación Ciudadana declared GYLDA registered as a municipal public utility. [60] GYLDA organized an LGTB film series for Orgullo in 2006. [61] In 2007, GYLA created an HIV / AIDS awareness campaign at the Universidad de La Rioja. [62]

GYLDA founded the Centro Arco Iris, which provided counseling to members of the LGTB community and for dealing with health issues impacting the LGTB community like STDs and HIV/AIDS. The center was located on property ceded by the town hall for this purpose for which GYLDA had an agreement with the town hall to carry out. [63]

GYLDA was holding meetings every Tuesday night from 8pm to 10pm in 2008. The meetings were often social occasions for members to get together, while also used for planning programming activities.[64] That year, the organization had around 95 members of which thirty-five were dues paying members. [65] GYLDA had around 50 members in 2012.[66]

In early February 2008, GYLDA announced they were starting a campaign to encourage people to vote for progressive political parties in the upcoming elections. They believed doing so would result in the continued advancement of their agenda, which had made significant strides in recent years, and help building a society that was moving “towards social progress, social plurality, respect for family diversity and the eradication of any conduct of discrimination based on sex, race, social or cultural class, religion or sexual orientation.”[67]

In 2008, the Ayuntamiento de Logroño hosted an act recognizing GLYDA for the first time as part of Orgullo celebrations. Concejala de Igualdad Concepción Arribas and Concejala de Derechos Sociales Pilar Criado participated in ceremony where they received the rainbow flag from GYLDA in 2008. It was the first-time representatives from the town hall participated in such an act.[68]

The Logroño town hall allocated €18225 to GYLDA in 2009 to organize preventative health information and activities. [69]  GYLDA put forward a proposal in 2011 to SERIS, the region’s public health system, to carry out anonymous AIDS testing. [70] In 2011, GYLDA announced they would be providing free and anonymous HIV testing that used saliva and could provide results in twenty minutes.[71]

GYLDA organized Orgullo 2010 in Logroño. A ceremony was held at Plaza del Ayuntamiento, where a delegation from GYLDA met with the local government and mother municipal groups. The official press release around the event was very generic and only mentioned a need to combat generic discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity.

GYLDA launched an information campaign in schools in May 2012 for the coexistence and respect for affective and sexual diversity among young people. The campaign was timed to start with Día contra la homofobia, transfobia y bifobia.[72] 51 La Rioja educational centers participated in GYLDA’s information campaign. The motto for that year’s events was, “A la escuela, sin armarios”.[73]

GYLDA President Francisco Pérez Diego was quoted in 2012 as saying that despite the economic crisis and subsequent funding crisis, the campaign to continue to fight the spread of HIV and AIDS could not be relaxed. [74]

GYLDA was the only LGTB organization in La Rioja going into 2012. [75] The LGTB community was left without an institutional voice in August 2012 after GYLDA formally dissolved in July 2012 after a vote by their board.[76] Francisco Pérez Diego was the president and José Sáenz was the organization’s secretary of GYLDA at the time of formal dissolution [77] After same-sex marriage became legal in Spain, many LGB activists in La Rioja got married, some had children either through adoption or through reproductive assistance and felt like their lives had become normalized. They stopped being as involved in LGTB activism in La Rioja as a result. This normalization to a large degree would be one of the reasons for the collapse of GYLDA.[78]

Despite being dissolved, GYLDA continued to its role dating back to 1995 of leading lesbian activism in La Rioja until 2014, when Marea Arcoíris and other LGTB groups were founded in the region. [79]

GYLDA then disappeared for a few years before quietly re-emerging in 2016. October of 2018, GYLDA joined FELGTB.[80] Jesús Cárcamo was GYLDA’s secretary in 2019.[81] José Sáenz and Jesús Cárcamo were respectively the president and secretary of GYLDA in 2021. [82]

Marea Arcoíris and GYLDA both had concerns about the commercialization of Pride in 2017.  Marea Arcoíris was quoted in El Salto Diario as saying, “Pride can only become an object of consumption if the people who organize it are subjects of consumption”, but they assume that “if companies see business, they will take advantage of it”.  GYLDA was quoted by the same publication as saying that it shared the same concerns  “although we do not believe that in the short term the vindictive character can be lost”.[83]

In 2017, the ayuntamiento de Logroño and GYLDA had a ceremony where the rainbow flag was presented and the ayuntamiento announced its support, along with declaring the municipal government as a place for diversity. Of the nine people photographed with the flag, only three were women of which one was PSOE councilor Beatriz Arraiz Nalda who was in the center while the other two women appeared in the far left of the image. [84]

GYLDA organized a protest in September 2018 to condemn the murder Francisco Javier U. P., a transwoman who went by the name Ely, in Valladolid on 12 August 2018. The concentración took place at Plaza del Mercado in Logroño.[85] GYLDA hosted an event called La Mar Variada at Pub Submarino in October 2018 to discuss the reality of LGTBI life in La Rioja. [86]

Orgullo 2019 in Logroño was jointly organized by GYLDA and Marea Arcoiris, with a goal trying to stop “the advancement of the extreme right.” GYLDA Secretary Jesús Cárcamo said of the need for the march, “The moment we stop living as heterosexuals there is a minority sector that does not accept it” and that attacks against homosexuals and transexual people were growing in the region in parallel to their increased visibility. [87]

GYLDA, in charge of organizing institutionally supported Orgullo in Logroño in 2020, dedicated it specifically to giving additional attention to making transwomen more visibility as part of the collective. The organizer said that trans, lesbian and bisexual women all suffered double discrimination and were particularly hard hit by covid because of their vulnerable economic position. Lesbians were otherwise not mentioned. The 2020 Logroño Orgullo concentration had the motto of “Orgullo de ser mujeres, lesbianas, trans, bisexuals”.[88] It took place on 3 July 2020 at sede CCOO Logroño on Av. Pío XII, 33.

Gylda mentioned Lesbian Visibility Day on their Twitter account on 26 April 2020, using the hashtag #DiaVisibilidadLesbica.  They also made a post about the day on their website. Their Lesbian Visibility Day post was tagged LGBT, LGTB, Trans, Bisexual and Lesbiana even though their post did not mention trans people specifically, nor did it mention bisexuals.   The organization did not do any of their own programming to honor the day, and instead promoted programming by FELGTB. They would not go on to mention the day in 2021 nor 2022, nor have any programming for the day or promote Lesbian Visibility Day programming by other organizations.  [89]

GYLDA organized Orgullo once again in Logroño in 2021, with the 26 June march having the motto, “Human Rights are not negotiated, they are legislated. Comprehensive Trans Law: Now!”.  The reading and promoting of the manifesto was done by GYLDA in collaboration with Chrysallis.  Attendees were asked to maintain a safe distance, wear a mask and wash their hands regularly.[90]  Marea Arcoíris organized their own Orgullo celebrations that took place in Logroño in the same time period.[91] GYLDA told Europa Press during Orgullo 2021 celebrations that they were satisfied that the way forward for the proposed gender self-identity law had happened with the national government.[92]

The Human Rights Observatory of La Rioja presented GYLDA with their award in August 2021 for their extensive work on fighting for LGTBI+ collective rights, fighting hate speech and combatting LGTBIphobic attacks.[93]

Marea Arcoíris

Marea Arcoíris La Rioja was founded in June 2014 after the disappearance of GYLDA, founded by people who had been LGTBI+ activists and those who had also been involved in other social and political movements. Some came from PSOE, along with others from the anarchist movement and Republican movement. The group stepped into the void in order organize Orgullo in Logroño that year. Eunate García Miguel was the first major activist from the organization to gain visibility. [94]

The group then pretty immediately organized LGTB programming in Logroño. Marea Arcoíris La Rioja organized activities to celebrate Día Internacional para ‘Salir del Armario’ on 11 October 2014. Part of these included painting a rainbow flag on a pedestrian cross. [95] At Christmas time in 2014, Marea Arcoíris advocated for a more gender diverse representation because kings and queens are not all the same. [96]

The group was involved with organizing Pride celebrations in Logroño in 2015. La Marea Arcoíris organized an event for of Día Internacional para “Salir del Armario” the following year, with their programming taking place at the Sagasta Cafeteria located at c/ Muro de Cervantes, 7 in Logroño at 7:00 p.m. on 11 October 2015.

Marea Arcoíris were again involved in organizing Orgullo in 2016, making a call that all citizens participate in the event. Some members of the LGTB community in the city felt uncomfortable in light of the attack on the gay nightclub in Orlanda because their own community did not always feel particularly safe to be out of the closet in. Orgullo organizers wanted the community more involved so that everyone would feel empowered to prevent such a thing from happening in Logroño. [97]

In September 2016, Marea Arcoíris made a formal request to the city government that the plaza where Centro de Ibercaja and Oficina de Turismo be renamed Plaza de la Diversidad as the plaza did not have a name. They still had not received a response seven months later.

The group was very active organizing events and writing manifestos on days that related to visibility in 2017. In honor of Lesbian Visibility Day on 26 April 2017, Marea Arcoíris organized a kiss in at Plaza del Mercado. Lesbians highlighted that they were still doubly oppressed for being women and for being homosexuals. [98]

Marea Arcoíria wrote a manifesto for Orgullo in 2017. It discussed how changes to law do not necessarily change people’s mentalities, and that members of the LGTB community continue to face attacks from ecclesiastical, fascist and sexist areas of society. They included a list of demands, including access to university healthcare and treatment for Hepatitis C patients among others. [99]

Marea Arcoíris La Rioja used the government of La Rioja to include in its 2017 budget €40000 for a campaign to campaign to raise awareness, prevent and fight against LGTBIphobia. International Day Against LGTBIphobia celebrations in 2017 by Marea Arcoíris had the motto of “TRANSforma el CIStema”, focusing on transpeople. José Urbaneja and lesbian Débora Pimentel led the organizing of the event. [100] Marea Arcoíris asked the Federaciones de Deportes de La Rioja and other La Rioja sport federations to take a public stand against LGTBIfobia in sports in February 2018 ahead of the Día Internacional contra la LGTBIfobia. The request was made via letter, and they cited other regional sport federations who have done similar initiatives.[101]

Deborah Pimentel was the president of Marea Arcoíris in 2018.[102] In September of that year, Marea Arcoíris requested that the Government of La Rioja include the LGTBI+ curriculum in order to combat LGTBIphobia that was occurring in school classrooms.

Orgullo 2019 in Logroño was jointly organized by GYLDA and Marea Arcoiris, with a goal trying to stop “the advancement of the extreme right.” GYLDA Secretary Jesús Cárcamo said of the need for the march, “The moment we stop living as heterosexuals there is a minority sector that does not accept it” and that attacks against homosexuals and transexual people were growing in the region in paralell to their increased visibility. [103]

Marea Arcoíris Rioja organized a manifestación on 23 April 2022 in honor of Lesbian Visibility Day at Plaza de Mercado. The day turned out to be very rainy, and they had a bunch of women playing drums with rainbow flags and the purple lesbian flag.[104]

Marea Arcoíris announced in May 2022 that they would not be participating in or running their own Pride celebrations that year.  Their decision was made because they wanted to protest the “erratic LGTBI policy of the Government of La Rioja” and “lack of will to promote the LGTBI Law, the opening of the LGTBI Advisory Center or the carrying out of campaigns against bullying”. Prior to their decision to pull out from organizing their own events, they had been given a subsidy of €3000 from the regional government to support their Pride events, the first time in the organization’s history that they had been given such a subsidy for Pride.[105]

Orgullo

Pride, known as Orgullo in Spanish, appears to have first been celebrated in Logroño in 1981, around four years after the first recognized homosexual march took place in Barcelona and around ten years after the first lesbian led march in honor of Christopher Street Liberation Day took place in Madrid.[106]  That year, Asociación Feminista Riojana (AFR) held a conference on 28 June to raise awareness of homosexual rights and lesbians in honor of Orgullo, then called Día Internacional Para la Liberación de Homosexuales y Lesbianas. AFR had frequently been hesitant to talk about lesbianism. The event though was a one off, and not repeated. [107]

Grupo de Lesbianas de La Rioja was founded in 1985, with some of its members likely having been involved with AFR.  By 1987, members of the group were working with and attending events with lesbians from other parts of the country, including the Basque Country and Madrid.[108] This coincided the second documented Pride event in Logroño, an event that was organized by AFR in June 1987 with a talk titled, “Lesbianas ¿por qué no?” at Sala de Cultura Gonzalo de Berceo. The 25 June 1987 talk featured a speaker from the Colectivo de Lesbianas Feminists de Madrid. The poster for the event featured two naked women embracing.  This was highly unusual because AFR still rarely discussed lesbianism in print, let alone doing so with pictures.[109]

            Recognition of 26 June as the International Homosexual and Lesbian Liberation Day then seem to disappear, with no programming, events, manifestos, flag raising for the next 17 years, even as events continued on, though in many places at much lower levels, in other places in Spain. [110]  When recognition of Pride finally happens again in La Rioja, it is at the headquarters of PSOE at Plaza Martínez Zaporta. This was the beginning of the Zapatero era, with new PSOE president José Luis Rodriguez Zapatero having come to power nationally on, among other things, the promise of marriage equality and adoption rights for same-sex couples.  These promises helped to rejuvenate LGTB communities in places like La Rioja and elsewhere nationally where activism had tremendously fallen off after the initial gains in freedom in the Democratic transition period.  The rainbow flag would fly at PSOE’s Logroño headquarters almost every year between 2004 and 2014. [111]

GYLDA, who were founded in December 1995, appear to be the first group to organize regular activities in celebration of Pride, with their first major documented event being the hosting of an LGTB film series that ran from at least 2005 to 2008, with venues that hosted screenings including Cines Moderno. [112] The first “official” Pride event in the context it was then recognized as was organized by GYLDA in June 2006. Among those events was the film festival, which was in its second year. [113]

National and local organizing for Pride in 2007 took place at the Hotel Carlton de Logroño, with the meeting attended by GYLDA and FELGTB meeting in April. The group decided the theme for nationally and for Orgullo 2007 Logroño would be Decepción.  This was in reference to things taking place in regional and local governments, including those of the office of the President of the Gobierno de La Rioja and by the town hall of Logroño. Interest in assisting in planning the event was large, with people from 43 associations participating and the hotel being jammed. FELGTB Board member Boti García Rodrigo complimented the local organizers for their work, saying, “They have done a very powerful and very important job. They have achieved meetings of a very high level both in organization and in infrastructure, which has been backed by the high participation.” The Logroño meeting was also important for national organization as Madrid was hosting EuroPride that year. The motto for the Madrid event was chosen by participants as “Now Europe: Equality is possible”.[114] Part of the Pride celebrations that took place in Logroño was the film series organized by GYLDA.[115]

In 2008, the ayuntamiento de Logroño hosted an act recognizing GLYDA for the first time as part of Orgullo celebrations. Concejala de Igualdad Concepción Arribas and Concejala de Derechos Sociales Pilar Criado participated in ceremony where they received the rainbow flag from GYLDA in 2008. It was the first-time representatives from the town hall participated in such an act. [116] Rainbow flags were also hung at the office of the Rectorado at the Universidad de La Rioja. GYLDA hung posters on the campus of the Universidad de La Rioja to advertise Orgullo festivities. [117]

Political parties beyond PSOE also became more visibly involved in Pride. Área de Libertad de Expresión Afectivo-Sexual de Izquierda Unida (IU) called for people to take to the streets for lesbian visibility as part of 2008 Orgullo events. Their claims about lesbians and their needs also included rights around transsexuality and sex re-assignment in public health, along with a reformulation of the National Plan on AIDS. [118]

With lesbian visibility the FELGTB theme for Orgullo 2008, GYLDA decided to adopt the same motto for their own events in Logroño which took place at Plaza del Mercado. Despite the motto being about lesbians, the organizers did not create and lesbian specific programming, nor any other LGTB class specific programming.[119]

While lesbians may not have been very visible in a year dedicated to making them visible, Pride celebrations in Logroño were the biggest to date.  The festivities were arranged in such a way that people could attend them and then go to Madrid on the weekend for that city’s festivities.[120] The biggest event was a stage for musical acts including local La Rioja Eurovision contestant Carola, and the musical group Chico y Chica. Events started with the raising of the rainbow flag at PSOE headquarters, followed by an institutional welcome at the town hall.[121] Other events included a shared meal, and an award ceremony for Premio Rosa given by GYLDA to those have helped achieve LGTB visibility. Things were concluded with a reading of a manifesto at Plaza del Mercado and concluded with the concert. [122] There were some changes though  as GYLDA was unable to hold their  Orgullo connected film cycle in 2008 because the film distributor Pride wanted around €4000 to allow for screening of the movies. GYLDA could not afford that cost as they only charged €3 per person for attendees to see films. They had initially planned to screen three movies at Cines Moderno de Logroño.[123]

            Pride 2009 celebrations, once again organized by GYLDA, took place at Parque de La Ribera, including a ceremony where the rainbow flag was raised.  The motto that year was, “Escuelas sin armarios”. GYLDA also distributed 1,700 STD prevention kids which included condoms and lubricants, with nothing specific to lesbian safe-sex practices, during Pride festivities. There were also a pair of concerts featuring CAROLA and LKAN, and a party with a DJ session at El Sueño de la Musa. The LGTB film series was back again after a break in 2009 with films being shown Cines Moderno in Logroño and Cines Arcca in Calahorra. One of the two movies was the 2008 lesbian themed movie, I Can’t Think Straight.[124]

The rainbow flag was raised elsewhere in the city in 2009, including at the offices of UGT, CC.OO., USO, STAR and CNT, along with Consejo de Juventud de La Rioja, and the political party offices of PSOE, PR, IU, PCPE and UPD. [125]

GYLDA organized Orgullo 2010 in Logroño. A ceremony was held at Plaza del Ayuntamiento, where a delegation from GYLDA met with the local government and mother municipal groups. The official press release around the event was very generic and only mentioned a need to combat generic discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity.

The rainbow flag was raised at PSOE headquarters in Logroño on 28 June 2011 in honor of Orgullo. Juventudes Socialistas de La Rioja also used the date to criticize Partido Popular’s national appeal on the legality of same-sex marriage. PSOE’s event was attended by GYLDA president and Logroño mayor of Clavijo Francisco Pérez, along with the secretaria de Igualdad of PSOE La Rioja Emilia Fernández.[126]

Orgullo 2012 Logroño had more than 60 people coming from different parts of Spain and Europe to attend, including Poland, Denmark, France, Belgium, Palencia, Zaragoza, Pamplona, ​​the Basque Country, Soria, Madrid and La Rioja.[127] Logroño mayor Cuca Gamarra held an institutional meeting with GYLDA president Francisco Javier Pérez Diego and Delegación de La Rioja de la Asociación de Madres y Padres de personas LGTB (AMPGYL) President Marisa Fernández that coincided with Orgullo 2012. The work of GYLDA was recognized at the meeting. The rainbow flag was hung inside the rainbow flag inside the town hall during the meeting.[128] CNT Logroño hung the rainbow flag at the office on 2 July 2012 in honor of Orgullo after a request to do so was made by GYLDA.[129]

In 2013, Cambia Logroño became involved with trying to revitalize the LGTB community especially around Orgullo, considering it an important project. They continued these activities for a number of years.[130]

Marea Arcoíris La Rioja was founded in June 2014 after the disappearance of GYLDA, founded by people who had been LGTBI+ activist and those who had also been involved in other social and political movements. The group stepped into the void in order organize Orgullo in Logroño that year. They used social media to advertise the event and to find financing for the event. Álvaro Villar was the person who led organizing, working with the town hall and others to coordinate the event. [131] Orgullo festivities in 2014 included the traditional concentration in Plaza del Mercado, along with talks, movies, debates and a comic exhibition. [132]

Cambia Logroño asked that the rainbow flag be displayed on the outside of the the Ayuntamiento de Logroño building for Orgullo 2015 Logroño celebrations. The request was made at a press conference with party spokesperson Gonzalo Peña, and Councilors Paz Manso de Zuñiga and Álvaro Villar.  Manso de Zuñiga said it was important given that society still discriminated against LGTB people, a problem which needed to be eradicated, and that it helped show that according to Article 14 of the Spanish constitution that all Spaniards are equal under the law. Their efforts were supported by Marea Arcoirirs, who had made their own request. In the end, their request was denied. [133]

Logroño’s Orgullo 2015 celebration included a float, with mostly men partying on top like they do in Madrid. Signs displayed at the Orgullo 2015 march included ” stereotypes be broken ” and “there are no people hiding”. Marea Arcoíris La Rioja’s Eunate García was the spokesperson for the event. She said that despite a decade having passed with marriage equality, an effort was still needed to make sure all groups were visible and that no one needed to be closeted. She said that young gays and lesbians were bulled in school, but it is rarely publicly discussed and that laws around education needed to be changed so that better solutions can be found for victims. Orgullo activities also included distributing informational material, condoms, a vermouth tasting and a parade.[134]

Cambia Logroño formally participated in Orgullo 2015 Logroño festivities, including at the manifestation, where they had a large rainbow flag and a float. They also held a ‘maribollo’ Olympics event, the first time they did so, and distributed condoms, lubricants and other safe-sex awareness educational materials. It is unclear if any of that material was applicable to lesbians.[135]

Estela P. Mayoral, an activist from Mujeres enRE_BELDÍA held a talk after a screening of 80 egunean at Café Maravilla on 23 June 2015 as part of Orgullo festivities in Logroño. The film is a Basque language lesbian themed movie about elderly lesbians.[136]

The rainbow flag flew from the first-floor balcony of the Casa Consistorial on 28 and 29 June as part of the Ayuntamiento de Logroño Orgullo festivities in 2016. The Muralla del Revellín was also lit in colors of the rainbow on 29 June.[137]

Marea Arcoíris were again involved in organizing Orgullo in 2016, making a call that all citizens participate in the event. Some members of the LGTB community in the city felt uncomfortable in light of the attack on the gay nightclub in Orlanda because their own community did not always feel particularly safe to be out of the closet in. Orgullo organizers wanted the community more involved so that everyone would feel empowered to prevent such a thing from happening in Logroño. Around 1,000 people attended Orgullo that year. [138]

Logroño hosted Orgullo festivities in 2016. There were three events on the program specific to a class in the LGTB collective. One was about lesbians, one about gay men and one about or for trans.  The lesbian themed event was a screening of the movie, Carol. Other more general programming included a bus being organized to take locals from La Rioja to Madrid’s Orgullo celebration that took place on 2 July 2016.  The parade included a tractor being used as a float.  [139]

Logroño hosted Orgullo festivities in 2017. There were only three events on the program specific to a class in the LGTB collective, and two were about or for trans and one was about gay men. Around 1,000 people attended Orgullo that year. [140]

Marea Arcoíris and GYLDA both had concerns about the commercialization of Pride in 2017.  Marea Arcoíris was quoted in El Salto Diario as saying, “Pride can only become an object of consumption if the people who organize it are subjects of consumption”, but they assume that “if companies see business, they will take advantage of it”.  GYLDA was quoted by the same publication as saying that it shared the same concerns  “although we do not believe that in the short term the vindictive character can be lost”.[141]

Marea Arcoíria wrote a manifesto for Orgullo in 2017. It discussed how changes to law do not necessarily change people’s mentalities, and that members of the LGTB community continue to face attacks from ecclesiastical, fascist and sexist areas of society. They included a list of demands, including access to university healthcare and treatment for Hepatitis C patients among others. [142]

In honor of Ogrullo 2017 Logroño, the rainbow flag hung from the facade of centro de cultura juvenil municipal ‘La Gota de Leche’ on 28 June. The Muralla del Revellín was also illuminated in the colors of rainbow from 28 June to 2 July.[143]

Orgullo Rural LGTBI+ 2018 La Rioja took place from 24 to 28 June 2018 in Logroño, with the protest starting at Plaza de Mercado. This took place in conjunction with other Pride celebrations in Fuenmayor and Calahorra. The motto for the event was TRANSforma el CIStema’ and the event was organized by Marea Arcoiris. The Logroño 2018 Orgullo event was focused members of the rural LGTBI+ community. As part of that theme, the looked for a tractor with a trailer or a bus without a roof or a truck with a rear platform for their celebration.  There were three events on the program specific to a class in the LGTB collective. Zero was about lesbians, two about gay men and one about or for trans. Marea Arcoíris fundraised for Orgullo 2018 by doing a crowdfunding campaign that used PayPal. [144]

The Biblioteca de la Universidad de La Rioja and Biblioteca Pública de La Rioja both had a collection of LGTB+ books on display from 17 to 30 June 2018 as part of the city’s Orgullo festivities. Some books were explicitly lesbian, including Fun home by Alison Bechdel, Aitor tiene dos mamás by María José Mendieta, Laura tiene dos mamás by Yolanda Fitó and Mabel Piérola, Oculto sendero by Elena Fortún, Safo de Lesbos: la sonrisa de Afrodita by Peter Green, Deseo y resistencia: treinta años de movilización lesbiana en el Estado español (1977-2007) by Gracia Trujillo Barbadillo, Madres lesbianas: mirada a las maternidades y familias lésbicas en México by Sara Espinosa Islas, Maternidad lesbiana: del deseo a la realidad by Remedios Álvarez Terán, María José Clavo Sebastián, Olaya Fernández Guerrero, María Ángeles Goicoechea Gaona.[145]

Logroño hosted Orgullo festivities on 29 June 2019. There were four events on the program specific to a class in the LGTB collective. Two was about lesbians, zero about gay men, one about or for trans and one about or for queers. One of the lesbian themed programming activity was a screening of the movie Carmen & Lola at Cines Moderno on 25 June 2019. Another lesbian themed item on the program was a screening of Carceles bolleras on 26 June at the Salon de Actors de la Biblioteca de La Rioja. Newspaper coverage of lesbians at Pride was sparse. There were no specific mentions to lesbians in the major festivities as discussed in local newspapers. It was the fifth year that La Rioja Orgullo was held in Logroño. The 2019 Orgullo march started at Plaza del Mercado and ended cat Concha del Espolón.  The Orgullo festitivities included a concert following the march. [146]

2019 was the first year that Gylda and Marea Arcoiris that jointly organized Orgullo festivities in Logroño, with a goal trying to stop “the advancement of the extreme right.” and a motto of “La igualdad y los derechos de las personas LGTBi”. Logroño was also one of number cities that unofficially followed the FELGTB chosen slogan of ‘Mayores Sin Armarios: ¡Historia, Lucha y Memoria!’ for Orgullo 2019. Orgullo protests and celebrations honored the fiftieth anniversary of the Stonewall riots.  Secretary Jesús Cárcamo said of the need for the march, “The moment we stop living as heterosexuals there is a minority sector that does not accept it” and that attacks against homosexuals and transexual people were growing in the region in parallel to their increased visibility. During the act, a gay man from Logroño gave testimony about the repression he faced in the past in both La Rioja and Madrid for being a homosexual. GYLDA requested that Partido Popular and Ciudadanos not participate in Logroño’s 28 June Orgullo march. [147]

The rainbow flag flew from the town hall of Logroño from 28 June to 6 July 2019 in honor of Orgullo. The decision to do so was made by the new local government comprised of members of PSOE, UP and PR+. Los Niños son Intocables denounced the flying of the rainbow flag at the town hall on 26 June 2019 as part of the city’s Orgullo celebrations. They also announced that they would officially support Orgullo activities taking place on 29 June in Logroño that year. The announcement about doing this was made by former GYLDA president and current and Plenary President Francisco Javier Pérez. Perez and Councilor for the Mayor’s Office, Equality and Coexistence Eva Tobías were the ones who did the ceremony to officially hang the flag from the town hall’s balcony. In addition to these activities, the town hall’s Youth Service on sexual diversity prepared a video about Orgullo for distribution across municipal social media networks.[148]

GYLDA, in charge of organizing Orgullo in Logroño in 2020, dedicated it specifically to giving additional attention to making transwomen more visibility as part of the collective. The motto for Orgullo 2020 was “Sororidad y feminismo para TRANSformar. ¡Mujeres lesbianas, trans y bisexuales en acción! Por las más vulnerables”, and was advanced nationally by FELGTB and COGAM.  The organizer said that trans, lesbian and bisexual women all suffered double discrimination and were particularly hard hit by covid because of their vulnerable economic position. Lesbians were otherwise not mentioned. The 2020 Logroño Orgullo concentration had the motto of Orgullo de ser mujeres, lesbianas, trans, bisexuales. Orgullo 2020 Logroño included a speech on the need for trans-inclusive feminism, sisterhood and resilience. The speech did not mention lesbians much, and there was no lesbian flag held by the mostly male organizers, but they did have a trans flag to accompany the giant rainbow flag.  Events took place on 3 July 2020 at sede CCOO Logroño on Av. Pío XII, 33. Members of the La Rioja LGTB community were encouraged to participate in the virtual festivities organized in Madrid. For 2020 Orgullo celebrations in Logroño, rainbow flags and facemasks were distributed by the townhall at El Submarino on the Friday before the main festivities. [149]

The Asociación Los Niños son Intocables denounced the Gobierno de la Rioja and the town hall of Logroño on 25 June 2020 for flying the rainbow flag during Orgullo on their building. The government tried to get around that by withdrawing the rainbow flag and hanging it instead at the office of the Presidencia de la Comunidad Autónoma.

GYLDA member Leire López-Davalillo read the Orgullo manifesto at the town hall in 2020. Logroño Mayor Pablo Hermoso de Mendoza attended the event along with President of the Government of La Rioja Concha Andreu. During the event, Andreu made comments about Asociación Los Niños son Intocables, characterizing them as a hate group and saying of their efforts to remove the rainbow flag, “I hope they carryout [their threat] and give me the satisfaction of defending before the judge the Spain I believe in and the pride I feel for my community.” Andreu went on to say, “I will always defend the rights and freedoms of all because it is the right path. Making all people happy being themselves enriches us all”.[150]

GYLDA organized Orgullo once again in Logroño in 2021, with the 26 June march having the motto, “Human Rights are not negotiated, they are legislated. Comprehensive Trans Law: Now!”.  The reading and promoting of the manifesto was done by GYLDA in collaboration with Chrysallis.  Attendees were asked to maintain a safe distance, wear a mask and wash their hands regularly. Marea Arcoíris organized their own Orgullo celebrations that took place in Logroño in the same time period. The Logroño 2021 Orgullo programming did not have any lesbian specific content. It had two programs specifically about gay men, one about trans and one about queer. The rest was inclusive of the whole alphabet. The speech by President Concha Andreu in honor of Orgullo on 28 June 2021 mentioned lesbians, saying, “In order for lesbian or bisexual women to be able to register the birth of their babies in the Civil Registry, they must necessarily marry, unlike heterosexual families…” as an example of the issues faced by lesbians in the region. It was her only lesbian specific mention in the speech.[151]

The Asociación Los Niños son Intocables denounced the town hall of Calahorra, Logroño and the Gobierno de La Rioja for hanging the rainbow flag on 25 June 2021 in celebration of Orgullo, citing ley 39/1981 which prohibited the flying from government building of any unofficial flags. Los Niños son Intocables complained about the Orgullo campaign of the town hall of Logroño in June 2021 in support of LGTB people on social media and elsewhere for teaching children that being a homosexual is okay. They used the Christian Bible as part of their denouncing of these efforts. The town hall used electronic billboards on bus stops and elsewhere to promote Pride. In one of the biggest Logroño Facebook groups, there were a lot of comments on a post about Orgullo 2021 Logroño that complained about the event existing, saying it was not needed and that the community should work to earn respect before having such an event. Gays and lesbians were accused of being dirty and filthy, and that Orgullo made gays and lesbians look overrepresented than their actual representation in Spanish society.

Marea Arcoíris announced in May 2022 that they would not be participating in or running their own Pride celebrations that year.  Their decision was made because they wanted to protest the  “erratic LGTBI policy of the Government of La Rioja” and “lack of will to promote the LGTBI Law, the opening of the LGTBI Advisory Center or the carrying out of campaigns against bullying”. Prior to their decision to pull out from organizing their own events, they had been given a subsidy of €3000 from the regional government to support their Pride events, the first time in the organization’s history that they had been given such a subsidy for Pride.[152]

See

Antigua Fábrica de Tabacos, located at C. Portales, 84, is where the old tobacco factory was once located.  The factory almost certainly employed lesbians, who would have taken advantage of the ability to get employment outside their household and get some degree of independence, something lesbians in other cities like Valencia, Málaga and Madrid did.

Calle Rosa Chacel is a street located in the city. It is named after the writer Rosa Chacel, who was born in Valladolid on 3 June 1898. A member of the Generación del 27, she would write her autobiography Acrópolis which discussed being a lesbian in Spain in the 1920s.

Calle María de la O Lejárraga is a street in the city named after María de la O Lejárraga García, better known by her pen name María Martínez Sierra. María was a feminist, writer, dramatist, translator and politician. She was also member of the Círculo Sáfico de Madrid. She was also the godmother of Elena Fortún.

Glorieta del Doctor Zubía is a park located at Calle de Juan XXIII, 3. The Asociaion Feminista de La Rioja convened a manifestacion against rape against women on 1 December 1985 at Glorieta del Doctor Zubía. Among those who supported the event were Grupo de Homosexuales y Lesbianas.

Sala Gonzalo de Berceo, located at Calle Pdte. Leopoldo Calvo Sotelo, 11, is a cultural space in Logroño managed by the Gobierno de La Rioja. The space is used for showing movies, puting on theoratical performances and hosting other exhibitions. It also houses Filmoteca Rafael Azcona. In the past, the building hosted the old Cinema Social and Cine Rialto. Asociaion Feminista de La Rioja held a talk titled, “Lesbianas ¿por qué no?” at Sala de Cultura Gonzalo de Berceo. The 25 June 1987 talk featured a speaker from the Colectivo de Lesbianas Feminists de Madrid.

Parlamento de La Rioja, located in Convento de la Merced at Calle Marqués de San Nicolás, 111, is the legislative seat of government for the region of La Rioja. The parliament was founded by statute on 9 June 1982. The building the legislature uses was constructed in the 13th century for the Orden de la Merced. It underwent extensive renovations in the 1600s, and secularized after being confiscated in 1835. From that point on, it had multiple uses until 1978 when the city government made it into a public building. It was restored in 1982 with the intention of being used as a parliament, finally inaugurated for this purpose in 1988. Elena de León as president of CRECUL and others from Partido Comunista de España (PCE), and Área de Libertad Afectivo-sexual de Izquierda Unida (ALEAS) presented draft legislation to the Congreso de Diputados and to regional legislatures the Proposal for Legal Equality of Domestic Partners with the right to joint adoption, including the right to be foster parents in legislation that was presented in 1996 by the Coalición Izquierda Unida. They also presented draft legislation law on legal equality of de facto couples regardless of their sexual orientation.

Plaza del Mercado is a historic plaza in the city. It was off this Plaza that the Court of the Inquisition was founded in the city in 1570 and where six alleged witches were burned to death on 7 and 8 November 1610. The Concatedral de Santa María de la Redonda is located off the plaza, and is a starting point for many evenings out for locals in the city.

Orgullo festivities in 2014 included the traditional concentration in Plaza del Mercado. [153]

Amnesty International, CC OO, IU and others set up stands at Plaza del Mercado on the morning of Orgullo 2015’s festivities to give information to people participating in the concentration later in the day. People walking between stands enjoyed tapas and wine. There were two rainbow flags taken to the doors of concatedral de La Redonda. Motherhood and its desire for members to become mothers was mentioned in the context of the state trying to change abortion laws that would prevent women from exercising control over their bodies. Part of the manifesto demanded women retain such control. Another demand was that lesbians and bisexual women be given access to assisted reproductive techniques.

In honor of Lesbian Visibility Day on 26 April 2017, Marea Arcoíris organized a kiss in at Plaza del Mercado. Lesbians highlighted that they were still doubly oppressed for being women and for being homosexuals. [154]

The 2017 Orgullo celebrations in Logroño mostly took place in Plaza del Mercado. They had some general LGBT programming, no lesbian specific programming and one program featuring transpeople. This programming represented a third of all their official programming.

An event was held in honor of Lesbian Visibility Day on 26 April 2019, with a reading of a manifesto at Plaza del Mercado.

Mujeres en Rebeldía and the Madrid based group Batucada Que Entiende wrote the manifesto for the event, with a motto of “La Rioja Entienda: Por la visibilidad lésbica.” There was also an exhibition of feminist women and lesbians at Plaza del Mercado.

Comisión Ciudadana Anti-sida de La Rioja (CCASR), located at Calle Doce Ligero, 37, 1º F, was the major AIDS / HIV association in the region in the 2010s. For lesbians with AIDS or looking for information on AIDS prevention, it would have been one of the most important organizations in the region.

GYLDA, located at Calle Huesca 61 bajo, is one of the major LGTB organizations in La Rioja, They played an important role since the 1990s on various issues, including AIDS and the right for marriage equality. It was and continues to be one of the most important organizations in the region.

Yagüe is a barrio in La Rioja. Asociación de madres y padres de lesbianas, gays, transexuales y bisexuales (AMGYL) held meetings in the barrio at the home of Marisa Fernández in the early 2010s.

Fiscalia de la Comunidad Autónoma, located at Calle Marqués de Murrieta, 45-47, is the prosecutor’s office for the region. In 2004, GLYDA asked the La Rioja Prosecutor’s Office to take action against Opus Dei and Presbyterial Council of the Diocese of Calahorra-La Calzada-Logroño, member Carlos Moreda de Lecesa for his statements in the Diario de La Rioja on 24 July 2004 that were “denigrating example of public incitement to hatred and discrimination against a whole group of people.” Part of Moreda’s article said, homosexuality was caused by “some anomaly caused by a difficult affective relationship with the father of the same sex.” and that homosexual practices “have always been considered disordered.”

Casa del Libro, located at Calle Doctores Castroviejo, 14, is a chain bookstore located in the city. As part of 2019 Día Visibilidad Lésbica events organized by Marea Arcoíris La Rioja, translator and writer Eva Gallud presented her poetry at the store.

Cines Moderno, located at Plaza C. Francisco Martínez Zaporta, 5, is a private cinema. It hosted an LGTB film series connected to Orgullo in Logroño from at least 2005 to at least 2008.

Universidad de La Rioja, located at Avenida de la Paz, 93 – 103, is a public university founded by law on 14 May 1992 with a student population of around 4,500. It absorbed the Colegio Universitario y las escuelas de Magisterio, Politécnica o Empresariales which were run by the Universidad de Zaragoza. Among the university’s lesbian students was Marina Blanco, a local politician, who studied chemistry.

The grupo Igualdad y Género at the university published a first of its kind study on lesbian women in the region in January 2016. The work was carried out by Maria Ángeles Goicochea, Olaya Fernández, María José Clavo and Remedios Álvarez.

The Universidad de La Rijoa, along with Unidad de Igualdad de Género y el Grupo de Investigación ‘Igualdad y Género’, GYLDA and FELGTB, organized the March 2018 Jornadas sobre Diversidad Afectivo-Sexual y de Género ‘Lxs Otrxs’. It was the ninth edition of the event, with that year’s focus on historical leaders in the LGTBI+ movement, with a goal of writing a better history of the homosexual rights movement in Spain and the history of the broader LGTBI+ movement in Spain. There was nothing on the program specific to lesbians.

Edificio Quintiliano is a building on the campus of the Universidad de La Rioja with entrances on Calle de Piscinas and Calle de Luis de Ulloa with its address officially at Calle La Cigüeña, 60. From 15 to 17 December 2021, the Salón de Grados, located inside the building, hosted the II Jornadas Historia de la intolerancia about the Spanish Inquisition. Dr. D. Miguel Ángel Chamocho Cantudo hosted a session as part of the conference titled, “La sodomía femenina en el Antiguo Régimen: la intolerancia de una exorbitancia jurídica” which discussed lesbians and their relationship with the Old Regime during the Inquisition period.

Biblioteca de la Universidad de La Rioja, located at Calle Piscinas, 1, is the university library. The building, designed by architect Gerardo Cuadra Rodríguez, was inaugurated in 1995. The Biblioteca de la Universidad de La Rioja and Biblioteca Pública de La Rioja both had a collection of LGTB+ books on display from 17 to 30 June 2018 as part of the city’s Orgullo festivities. Some books were explicitly lesbian, including Fun home by Alison Bechdel, Aitor tiene dos mamás by María José Mendieta, Laura tiene dos mamás by Yolanda Fitó and Mabel Piérola, Oculto sendero by Elena Fortún, Safo de Lesbos: la sonrisa de Afrodita by Peter Green, Deseo y resistencia: treinta años de movilización lesbiana en el Estado español (1977-2007) by Gracia Trujillo Barbadillo, Madres lesbianas: mirada a las maternidades y familias lésbicas en México by Sara Espinosa Islas, Maternidad lesbiana: del deseo a la realidad by Remedios Álvarez Terán, María José Clavo Sebastián, Olaya Fernández Guerrero, María Ángeles Goicoechea Gaona.

Biblioteca Pública de La Rioja, located at Calle de la Merced, 1, is a public library in the city. The building orginally belonged to Convento de la Encarnación de Logroño, but changed hands to the Instituto Provincial in 1840. It began to be transformed into a library in 1852. Its organizational status and public access would change several times until 1990, when it formally became part od the Library System of La Rioja. The Biblioteca de la Universidad de La Rioja and Biblioteca Pública de La Rioja both had a collection of LGTB+ books on display from 17 to 30 June 2018 as part of the city’s Orgullo festivities. It is unclear if any were explicitly lesbian.

Gobierno de La Rioja Oficina de Atención a la Víctima, located at Calle Marqués de Murrieta 45-47, Palacio de Justicia, is the location where victims of homophobic violence can receive attention and assistance.

Hospital San Pedro, located at Calle Piqueras, 98, is a public hospital inaugurated by the King and Queen of Spain and the President of La Rioja Pedro Sanz on 28 February 2007. On 3 May 2021, the hospital refused to register Iris, the daughter of a lesbian couple named Irene and Isabel. They were told that they needed to go to the Registro Civil to register her birth. This was despite the fact that the couple are married, had Iris’s birth certificate and their family book. The Gobierno de La Rioja said after the incident that it was an error that would not be repeated.

CNT Logroño, located at Called Baños, 3, is the local branch of the union Confederación Nacional del Trabajo. They hung the rainbow flag at the office on 2 July 2012 in honor of Orgullo after a request to do so was made by GYLDA.

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nuevecuatrouno. (2018, April 13). La Marea Arcoíris alerta de la «inseguridad» en las calles de Logroño a causa de la homofobia. nuevecuatrouno. Retrieved from https://nuevecuatrouno.com/2018/04/13/la-marea-arcoiris-alerta-de-la-inseguridad-en-las-calles-de-logrono-a-causa-de-la-homofobia/

nuevecuatrouno. (2019, November 15). Cutillas y Rubio, dos diputados riojanos de VOX en la Asamblea de Madrid. nuevecuatrouno. Retrieved from https://nuevecuatrouno.com/2019/11/15/rioja-politica-vox-santiago-abascal-jorge-cutillas-alicia-rubio-polemica/

nuevecuatrouno. (2019, November 15). La riojana Alicia Rubio la lía en la Asamblea de Madrid: «El feminismo es cáncer». nuevecuatrouno. Retrieved from https://nuevecuatrouno.com/2019/11/15/rioja-logrono-asamblea-madrid-alicia-rubio-vox-feminismo/

nuevecuatrouno. (2020, March 6). Este 8-M las riojanas gritarán: ‘Luchando molestamos; solo muertas importamos’. nuevecuatrouno. Retrieved from https://nuevecuatrouno.com/2020/03/06/rioja-logrono-ocho-marzo-coordinadora-feminismo/

nuevecuatrouno. (2021, June 28). «Queremos que La Rioja sea una zona de libertad y seguridad para las personas LGTBIQ». nuevecuatrouno. Retrieved from https://nuevecuatrouno.com/2021/06/28/dia-internacional-orgullo-rioja-libertad-seguridad/

nuevecuatrouno. (2022, May 9). LA RIOJAMarea Arcoíris se borra del Orgullo como protesta hacia Raquel Romero. nuevecuatrouno. Retrieved from https://nuevecuatrouno.com/2022/05/09/marea-arcoiris-borra-orgullo-protesta-raquel-romero/

Pajares Ramos, N. (2019, June 18). Marea Arcoíris: «Esperamos que el cambio de Gobierno favorezca al colectivo LGTBi+». nuevecuatrouno. Retrieved from https://nuevecuatrouno.com/2019/06/18/orgullo-lgtbi-rioja-gobierno-educacion-arcoiris/

Portal de Archivos Españoles (PARES). (2019). Corporate Body – Tribunal de la Inquisición de Logroño (La Rioja, España). Retrieved from Portal de Archivos Españoles (PARES): http://pares.mcu.es/ParesBusquedas20/catalogo/autoridad/48992

rioja2. (2008, June 26). Suspendido el ciclo de cine. rioja2. Retrieved from https://www.rioja2.com/n-28331-3-Suspendido_ciclo_cine/

rioja2. (2008, June 26). Un toque musical. rioja2. Retrieved from https://www.rioja2.com/n-28322-3-toque_musical/

rioja2. (2009, June 24). En un país multicolor. rioja2. Retrieved from https://www.rioja2.com/n-44692-2-pais_multicolor/

rioja2. (2010, March 23). ‘Educación en la diversidad en el ámbito familiar’ próxima conferencia en la UR. rioja2. Retrieved from https://www.rioja2.com/n-60415-2-Educacion_diversidad_ambito_familiar_proxima_conferencia_UR/

rioja2. (2010, March 23). ‘Educación en la diversidad en el ámbito familiar’ próxima conferencia en la UR. rioja2. Retrieved from https://www.rioja2.com/n-60415-2-Educacion_diversidad_ambito_familiar_proxima_conferencia_UR/

rioja2. (2010, March 21). I Jornadas sobre Educación en Diversidad Afectivo-Sexual. rioja2. Retrieved from https://www.rioja2.com/n-60066-2-I_Jornadas_sobre_Educacion_Diversidad_AfectivoSexual/

rioja2. (2010, March 25). La sociedad riojana sigue tolerando la homofobia. rioja2. Retrieved from https://www.rioja2.com/n-60488-2-sociedad_riojana_sigue_tolerando_homofobia/

rioja2. (2012, May 16). GYLDA inicia una campaña de información en los centros escolares. rioja2. Retrieved from https://www.rioja2.com/n-92700-2-GYLDA_inicia_campana_informacion_centros_escolares/

rioja2. (2016, June 27). Logroño iza la bandera arcoiris en el Día del Orgullo. rioja2. Retrieved from https://www.rioja2.com/n-105281-3-logrono-iza-la-bandera-arcoiris-en-el-dia-del-orgullo/

rioja2. (2017, June 27). “Las lesbianas tenemos doble discriminación: por ser LGTBI+ y por ser mujeres”. rioja2. Retrieved from https://www.rioja2.com/n-111781-2-las-lesbianas-tenemos-doble-discriminacion-por-ser-lgtbi-y-por-ser-mujeres/

rioja2. (2018, October 4). El colectivo LGTBI+ desembarca en el Pub Submarino este viernes. rioja2. Retrieved from https://www.rioja2.com/n-124468-2-el-colectivo-lgtbi-desembarca-en-el-pub-submarino-este-viernes/

Rioja2. (2018, September 25). Gylda se concentra para condenar el asesinato de Ely. Rioja2. Retrieved from https://www.rioja2.com/n-124144-2-gylda-se-concentra-para-condenar-el-asesinato-de-ely/

rioja2. (2018, March 14). Las minorías de las minorías en las Jornadas sobre Diversidad Afectivo-Sexual y de Género. rioja2. Retrieved from https://www.rioja2.com/n-118299-2-las-minorias-de-las-minorias-en-las-jornadas-sobre-diversidad-afectivo-sexual-y-de-genero/

rioja2. (2018, April 25). Más visibilidad para las mujeres lesbianas. rioja2. Retrieved from https://www.rioja2.com/n-119593-3-mas-visibilidad-para-las-mujeres-lesbianas/

rioja2. (2018, May 10). Se busca tractor para un orgullo LGTBI+ más rural que nunca. rioja2.

rioja2. (2018, June 23). Una manifestación para visibilizar los problemas del colectivo LGTBI+ en zonas rurales. rioja2. Retrieved from https://www.rioja2.com/n-121449-2-una-manifestacion-para-visibilizar-los-problemas-del-colectivo-lgtbi-en-zonas-rurales-/

rioja2. (2019, March 25). La UR aborda las X Jornadas sobre Diversidad Afectivo-Sexual y de Género. rioja2. Retrieved from https://www.rioja2.com/n-130163-2-la-ur-aborda-las-x-jornadas-sobre-diversidad-afectivo-sexual-y-de-genero/

Rioja2. (2021, June 23). Gylda, «satisfecha» por el «desbloqueo» de la Ley Trans. rioja2. Retrieved from https://www.larioja.com/la-rioja/gylda-satisfecha-desbloqueo-20210623125945-nt.html

Rioja2. (2021, June 18). La manifestación de Gylda del Orgullo será el sábado 26 de junio. rioja2. Retrieved from https://www.rioja2.com/n-153805-2-la-manifestacion-de-gylda-del-orgullo-sera-el-sabado-26-de-junio/

rioja2. (2021, September 10). La UR acoge este lunes las XI Jornadas de Diversidad Afectivo Sexual y de Género. rioja2. Retrieved from https://www.rioja2.com/n-156066-2-la-ur-acoge-este-lunes-las-xi-jornadas-de-diversidad-afectivo-sexual-y-de-genero/

rioja2. (2021, May 6). Las trabas para registrar a tu bebé si eres una pareja lesbiana. rioja2. Retrieved from https://www.rioja2.com/n-152535-2-las-trabas-para-registrar-a-tu-bebe-si-eres-una-pareja-lesbiana/

Robles, J. (2020, February 4). Séptima manifestación de ‘Los Niños son Intocabes’ a favor del PIN Parental en La Rioja. Actuall. Retrieved from https://www.actuall.com/educacion/septima-manifestacion-de-los-ninos-son-intocabes-a-favor-del-pin-parental-en-la-rioja/

Romero Alonso, R. (2021, August 4). Entrega de premios anuales de Derechos Humanos de La Rioja. La Rioja. Retrieved from https://actualidad.larioja.org/noticia?n=not-entrega-de-premios-anuales-de-derechos-humanos-de-la-rioja

Sainz Jimenez, S. (2007, July 13). Veinte parejas gays se han casado en La Rioja desde la aprobación de la ley «Ya nadie se sorprende». La Rioja. Retrieved from https://www.larioja.com/prensa/20070713/rioja_region/veinte-parejas-gays-casado_20070713.html

Sainz, S. (2022). Cuando Iberpop puso a La Rioja en el mapa. (larioja.com, Ed.) La Rioja. Retrieved from https://especial.larioja.com/2022/quefuede/iberpop.php

Val Cubero, A. (2003). La mujer logroñesa a través de la imagen en el siglo XX. Logroño: Gobierno de La Rioja, Instituto de Estudios Riojanos.


[1] (Portal de Archivos Españoles (PARES), 2019)

[2] (Moreno Galilea, 2018)

[3] (Moreno Galilea, 2018)

[4] (Moreno Galilea, 2018)

[5] (Moreno Galilea, 2018)

[6] (Codina Canet, 2020)

[7] (FOESSA, 1983)

[8] (Moreno Galilea, 2018)

[9] (Villar Sáenz, June 2008; Varela, Parra Contreras, & Val Cubero, 2016)

[10] (Villar Sáenz, June 2008)

[11] (Sainz, 2022)

[12] (Val Cubero, 2003)

[13] (Val Cubero, 2003)

[14] (La Rioja, 2005)

[15] (Sainz Jimenez, 2007)

[16] (A.B.H., 2006)

[17] (A.B.H., 2006)

[18] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, Conciencia Social y política de las mujeres que aman a mujeres en la transición al siglo XXI en La Rioja, 2019)

[19] (Crespo, 2012)

[20] (rioja2, 2010; rioja2, 2010; rioja2, 2010)

[21] (rioja2, 2010; Moreno, La Rioja no es lugar para salir del armario, 2012)

[22] (Larraz, 2012; Moreno, La Rioja no es lugar para salir del armario, 2012)

[23] (Moreno, La Rioja no es lugar para salir del armario, 2012)

[24] (rioja2, 2017)

[25] (rioja2, 2017)

[26] (Europa Press, 2015)

[27] (La Rioja, 2018; rioja2, 2018)

[28] (La Rioja, 2017)

[29] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, Conciencia Social y política de las mujeres que aman a mujeres en la transición al siglo XXI en La Rioja, 2019; Campos, 2019)

[30] (rioja2, 2018)

[31] (La Rioja, 2018; rioja2, 2018)

[32] (Marea Arcoíris, 2018; nuevecuatrouno, 2018; rioja2, 2018)

[33] Spanish: “mira a estas bolleras de mierda” and “vamos a ponerles el cara al sol para que aprendan”.

[34] (Marea Arcoíris, 2018; nuevecuatrouno, 2018; Martin, 2018; rioja2, 2018)

[35] (rioja2, 2019)

[36] (Pajares Ramos, 2019)

[37] (La Rioja, 2019)

[38] (rioja2, 2021)

[39] (nuevecuatrouno, 2019; nuevecuatrouno, 2019)

[40] (Robles, 2020)

[41] (nuevecuatrouno, 2020; Europa Press, 2020)

[42] (rioja2, 2021)

[43] (rioja2, 2021)

[44] (Europa Press, 2022)

[45] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, Conciencia Social y política de las mujeres que aman a mujeres en la transición al siglo XXI en La Rioja, 2019; La Noticia, 2008; Moreno, La Rioja no es lugar para salir del armario, 2012; Ayuntamiento de Logroño, 2012)

[46] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, Conciencia Social y política de las mujeres que aman a mujeres en la transición al siglo XXI en La Rioja, 2019)

[47] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, Conciencia Social y política de las mujeres que aman a mujeres en la transición al siglo XXI en La Rioja, 2019; La Noticia, 2008; Moreno, La Rioja no es lugar para salir del armario, 2012; Ayuntamiento de Logroño, 2012)

[48] (Moreno, Nadie dará la cara por los homosexuales en La Rioja, 2012)

[49] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, Conciencia Social y política de las mujeres que aman a mujeres en la transición al siglo XXI en La Rioja, 2019; La Noticia, 2008; Moreno, La Rioja no es lugar para salir del armario, 2012; Ayuntamiento de Logroño, 2012)

[50] (Moreno, Nadie dará la cara por los homosexuales en La Rioja, 2012)

[51] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, Conciencia Social y política de las mujeres que aman a mujeres en la transición al siglo XXI en La Rioja, 2019)

[52] (Moreno, Nadie dará la cara por los homosexuales en La Rioja, 2012)

[53] (Val Cubero, 2003; GYLDA, 2003)

[54] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, Conciencia Social y política de las mujeres que aman a mujeres en la transición al siglo XXI en La Rioja, 2019)

[55] (de Benito, 2004)

[56] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, Conciencia Social y política de las mujeres que aman a mujeres en la transición al siglo XXI en La Rioja, 2019)

[57] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, Conciencia Social y política de las mujeres que aman a mujeres en la transición al siglo XXI en La Rioja, 2019)

[58] (GYLDA, 2008)

[59] (La Noticia, 2008)

[60] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, Conciencia Social y política de las mujeres que aman a mujeres en la transición al siglo XXI en La Rioja, 2019)

[61] (rioja2, 2008)

[62] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, Conciencia Social y política de las mujeres que aman a mujeres en la transición al siglo XXI en La Rioja, 2019)

[63] (La Noticia, 2008)

[64] (La Noticia, 2008)

[65] (La Noticia, 2008)

[66] (Larraz, 2012)

[67] (La Rioja, 2008)

[68] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, Conciencia Social y política de las mujeres que aman a mujeres en la transición al siglo XXI en La Rioja, 2019; Moreno, Nadie dará la cara por los homosexuales en La Rioja, 2012)

[69] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, Conciencia Social y política de las mujeres que aman a mujeres en la transición al siglo XXI en La Rioja, 2019)

[70] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, 2019)

[71] (Europa Press, 2011)

[72] (rioja2, 2012; Moreno, La Rioja no es lugar para salir del armario, 2012)

[73] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, Conciencia Social y política de las mujeres que aman a mujeres en la transición al siglo XXI en La Rioja, 2019; Moreno, La Rioja no es lugar para salir del armario, 2012)

[74] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, Conciencia Social y política de las mujeres que aman a mujeres en la transición al siglo XXI en La Rioja, 2019)

[75] (Moreno, La Rioja no es lugar para salir del armario, 2012)

[76] (Moreno, La Rioja no es lugar para salir del armario, 2012)

[77] (Moreno, La Rioja no es lugar para salir del armario, 2012)

[78] (Moreno, La Rioja no es lugar para salir del armario, 2012)

[79] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, Conciencia Social y política de las mujeres que aman a mujeres en la transición al siglo XXI en La Rioja, 2019)

[80] (rioja2, 2018)

[81] (Europa Press, 2019)

[82] (Rioja2, 2021)

[83] (Canas & Garcia, 2017)

[84] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, Conciencia Social y política de las mujeres que aman a mujeres en la transición al siglo XXI en La Rioja, 2019)

[85] (Rioja2, 2018; El Norte, 2018)

[86] (rioja2, 2018)

[87] (Europa Press, 2019)

[88] English: Pride of being women, lesbians, trans, bisexuals”.

[89] (admingylda, 2020)

[90] (Rioja2, 2021)

[91] (Marea Arcoíris, 2021)

[92] (Rioja2, 2021)

[93] (Romero Alonso, 2021)

[94] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, Conciencia Social y política de las mujeres que aman a mujeres en la transición al siglo XXI en La Rioja, 2019)

[95] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, Conciencia Social y política de las mujeres que aman a mujeres en la transición al siglo XXI en La Rioja, 2019)

[96] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, Conciencia Social y política de las mujeres que aman a mujeres en la transición al siglo XXI en La Rioja, 2019)

[97] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, Conciencia Social y política de las mujeres que aman a mujeres en la transición al siglo XXI en La Rioja, 2019)

[98] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, Conciencia Social y política de las mujeres que aman a mujeres en la transición al siglo XXI en La Rioja, 2019)

[99] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, Conciencia Social y política de las mujeres que aman a mujeres en la transición al siglo XXI en La Rioja, 2019)

[100] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, Conciencia Social y política de las mujeres que aman a mujeres en la transición al siglo XXI en La Rioja, 2019)

[101] (Europa Press, 2018)

[102] (La Rioja, 2018)

[103] (Europa Press, 2019)

[104] (Europa Press, 2022)

[105] (nuevecuatrouno, 2022)

[106] (Moreno Galilea, 2018; Val Cubero, 2003; Carretero, 2014)

[107] (Moreno Galilea, 2018; Val Cubero, 2003)

[108] (Villar Sáenz, June 2008; Varela, Parra Contreras, & Val Cubero, 2016)

[109] (Moreno Galilea, 2018; Val Cubero, 2003)

[110] (Calvo Borobia, 2010; Díaz P. , 2018)

[111] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, Conciencia Social y política de las mujeres que aman a mujeres en la transición al siglo XXI en La Rioja, 2019)

[112] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, Conciencia Social y política de las mujeres que aman a mujeres en la transición al siglo XXI en La Rioja, 2019; La Noticia, 2008; Moreno, La Rioja no es lugar para salir del armario, 2012; Ayuntamiento de Logroño, 2012)

[113] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, 2019; rioja2, 2008)

[114] (Caro, 2007)

[115] (rioja2, 2008)

[116] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, 2019; Moreno, 2012)

[117] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, 2019)

[118] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, 2019)

[119] (rioja2, 2008)

[120] (La Noticia, 2008)

[121] Some sources say this was the second year in a row where the townhall had done that while others said 2008 was the first year this was done.

[122] (rioja2, 2008)

[123] (rioja2, 2008)

[124] (rioja2, 2009)

[125] (rioja2, 2009)

[126] (Europa Press, 2011)

[127] (Moreno, 2012)

[128] (Europa Press, 2012; Ayuntamiento de Logroño, 2012)

[129] (CNT Logroño, 2012)

[130] (Europa Press, 2015)

[131] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, 2019)

[132] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, 2019)

[133] (Europa Press, 2015; Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, 2019)

[134] (EFE, 2015)

[135] (Europa Press, 2015)

[136] (nuevecuatrouno, 2015)

[137] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, 2019; Europa Press, 2016; rioja2, 2016)

[138] (rioja2, 2018; Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, 2019)

[139] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, 2019; Europa Press, 2016; rioja2, 2018)

[140] (rioja2, 2018)

[141] (Canas & Garcia, 2017)

[142] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, 2019)

[143] (nuevecuatrouno, 2017)

[144] (rioja2, 2018)

[145] (rioja2, 2018; Biblioteca de la Universidad de La Rioja, 2018)

[146] (Europa Press, 2019)

[147] (Europa Press, 2019; Nevot, 2019)

[148] (Campos, 2019)

[149] (Europa Press, 2020)

[150] (Europa Press, 2020)

[151] (nuevecuatrouno, 2021; Rioja2, 2021; Marea Arcoíris, 2021)

[152] (nuevecuatrouno, 2022)

[153] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, Conciencia Social y política de las mujeres que aman a mujeres en la transición al siglo XXI en La Rioja, 2019)

[154] (Álvarez Terán, Goicoechea Gaona, & Clavo Sebastián, Conciencia Social y política de las mujeres que aman a mujeres en la transición al siglo XXI en La Rioja, 2019)

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